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unhealthful or disagreeable odors and fumes is a constitutional right, and cannot be taken away by legislatures or courts, much less by individuals pursuing their own thoughtless or selfish indulgence.

1950: Morton Levin publishes first major study definitively linking smoking to lung cancer

Levin was then the director of Cancer Control for the New York State Department of Health. His epidemiological survey of Buffalo patients between 1938 and 1950 appeared in The Journal of the American Medical Association. His shocking and controversial conclusion: smokers were statistically twice as likely to develop lung cancer as non-smokers.

1952: Hollingsworth & Vose gets 100% indemnity agreement from Lorillard on filters

1952: East Walpole, Massachusettes-based manufacturer Hollingsworth & Vose Co. writes a "100 percent indemnity agreement" into its contract with Lorillard. Hollingsworth supplied asbestos-laden material for filters used in Lorillard's Kent cigarettes. The agreement required Lorillard to pay all legal costs and damages stemming from lawsuits over the filter's health effects.

1954-01-04 Tobacco Industry Research Committee (TIRC) Announced.

Tobacco Industry Research Committee (TIRC) announces in a nationwide 2-page ad, A Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers The ads were placed in 448 newspapers across the nation, reaching a circulation of 43,245,000 in 258 cities.

TIRC's first scientific director noted cancer scientist Dr. Clarence Cook Little, former head of the National Cancer Institute (soon to become the American Cancer Society). Little's life work lay in the genetic origins of cancer; he tended to disregard environmental factors.

From the complaint filed by the state of Florida in its 1995 lawsuit against tobacco companies:

59. In response to the publication of Dr. Wynder's study in 1953, the presidents of the leading tobacco manufacturers, including American Tobacco Co., R.J. Reynolds, Philip Morris, U.S. Tobacco Co., Lorillard, and Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation- ration, hired the public relations firm of Hill and Knowlton, Inc., to deal with the "health scare" presented by smoking. Acting in concert, at a public relations strategy meeting, the participants decided to organize a committee to be specifically charged with the "public relations" function. . . . As a result of these efforts, the Tobacco Institute Research Committee ("TIRC"), an entity later known as The Council for Tobacco Research ("CTR"), was formed.

60. The TIRC immediately ran a full-page promotion in more than 400 newspapers aimed at an estimated 43 million Americans. That piece was entitled "A Frank Statement To Cigarette Smokers" . . .



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