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"It is not surprising that the tobacco industry, which for decades has continued to obfuscate the causal link between smoking and disease despite massive evidence, should feel threatened by studies that show that nonsmokers may be harmed and killed by their products. After all, in 1991, the evidence that ETS causes lung cancer was reviewed and found, by a federal court in Australia, to be 'compelling.' And it's not surprising that scientist-editors at JAMA, who have read the evidence on both sides, believe that ETS is a great danger to nonsmokers and are depressed by industry tactics. . .

"It is interesting that the judge in the Australian case was generally critical of the narrow approach of the statistical experts called by the Tobacco Institute of Australia, and their tendency to be 'overcritical' of parts of every study while sometimes demanding "unattainable standards" of proof of causation. He was more favorably impressed by the broader approach of the epidemiologists, who stressed the importance of the pattern that emerged from all these studies -- studies 'supported by strong biological plausibility.'"

1994-04-14: Seven Tobacco Company executives begin testimony in Congressional hearings

The officers who appeared before Henry Waxman's (D-CA) Committee beginning April 14, 1994, were: William Campbell, CEO, Philip Morris James Johnston, CEO, RJR Tobacco Co Joseph Taddeo, President, U.S. Tobacco Co Andrew Tisch, CEO, Lorillard Tobacc Thomas Sandefur, CEO, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co Ed Horrigan, CEO, Liggett Group Donald Johnston, CEO, American Tobacco Co.

The following was the most famous exchange (April 15, 1994):

REP. WYDEN: Let me ask you first, and I'd like to just go down the row, whether each of you believes that nicotine is not addictive. I've heard virtually all of you touch on it-- yes or no, do you believe nicotine is not addictive? WILLIAM I. CAMPBELL (Philip Morris): I believe that nicotine is not addictive, yes. REP. WYDEN: Mr. Johnston... JAMES JOHNSTON (RJReynolds): Uh, Congressman, cigarettes and nicotine clearly do not meet the classic definition of addiction. There is no intoxication-- REP. WYDEN: We'll take that as a no. And again, time is short, if you can just, I think each of you believe nicotine is not addictive, I'd just like to have this for the record. JOSEPH TADDEO (US Tobacco): "I don't believe that nicotine or our products are addictive." ANDREW TISCH (P Lorillard): I believe that nicotine is not addictive. EDWARD HORRIGAN (Ligget Group): I believe that nicotine is not addictive. THOMAS SANDEFUR (Brown & Williamson): I believe that nicotine is not addictive. DONALD JOHNSTON (American Tobacco Co.): And I too believe that nicotine is not addictive.

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