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and prettier cortezans, here in San Francisco than in any place I have ever visited, and it is my unbiased opinion that California can and does furnish the best bad things that are obtainable in America."

  • 1852:Washington Duke, a young tobacco farmer, builds a modest, two-story home near

Durham, NC, for himself and his new bride. The house, and the log structure which served as a "tobacco factory" after the Civil War may still be seen at the Duke Homestead Museum.

  • 1852: Matches are introduced, making smoking more convenient.

  • 1853-1856: EUROPE: CRIMEAN WAR British soldiers learn how cheap and convenient the

cigarettes ("Papirossi") used by their Turkish allies are, and bring the practise back to England. The story goes that the English captured a Russian train loaded with provisions--including cigarettes...

  • 1854: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: London tobacconist Philip Morris begins making his own

cigarettes. Old Bond Street soon becomes the center of the retail tobacco trade.

  • 1854: FRIEDRICH TIEDEMANN writes the first exhaustive treatment on tobacco.

  • 1854: First North American patent for a fire-safe (self-extinguishing) cigarette is registered.

(Bristol 11.409)

  • 1855: J.E. Lundstrom invents the safety match, which requires a special striking surface.

  • 1855: "Annual Report of the New York Anti-Tobacco Society for 1855" calls tobacco a

"fashionable poison," warns against addiction and claims half of all deaths of smokers between 35 and 50 were caused by smoking.

  • 1856-1857: ENGLAND: A running debate among readers about the health effects of tobacco

runs in the British medical journal, Lancet. The argument runs as much along moral as medical lines, with little substantiation.(RK)

  • 1856: BUSINESS: NORTHERN IRELAND: Tom Gallaher begins a business making Irish

roll tobacco in Londonderry.

  • 1856-1857: ENGLAND: The country's first cigarette factory is opened by Crimean vet Robert

Gloag, manufacturing "Sweet Threes" (GTAT)

  • 1856: PEOPLE: James Buchanan "Buck" Duke is born to Washington "Wash" Duke, an

independent farmer who hated the plantation class, opposed slavery, and raised food and a little tobacco.

  • 1857: BUSINESS: NORTHERN IRELAND: Gallaher is founded in Londonderry by Tom

Gallaher. Later, he moved the firm to Belfast.

  • 1858: Treaty of Tianjin allows cigarettes to be imported into China duty-free.

  • 1858: First Chinese Immigrant arrives in New York City, Sells Cigars. Ah Ken moves into a

house on Mott St., opens a cigar store on Park Row. ( Low Life, Sante, 1991)

  • 1858: Fears are first raised about the health effects of smoking in The Lancet

  • 1859: Reverend George Trask publishes tract "Thoughts and stories for American Lads: Uncle

Toby's anti-tobacco advice to his nephew Billy Bruce". He writes, "Physicians tell us that twenty thousand or more in our own land are killed by [tobacco] every year (LB)

  • 1860: The Census for Virginia and North Carolina list 348 tobacco factories, virtually all

producing chewing tobacco. Only 6 list smoking tobacco as a side-product (which is manufactured from scraps left over from plug production).

  • 1860: BUSINESS: Manufactured cigarettes appear. A popular early brand is Blackwell

Tobacco Company's Bull Durham, which rose to become the most famous brand in world, and gave rise to the term "bull pen" for a baseball dugout.

  • 1860: BUSINESS: MARKETING: Lorillard wraps $100 bills at random in packages of

cigarette tobacco named "Century," in order to celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the firm (BD)

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