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  • 1861-1865: USA: THE CIVIL WAR: Tobacco is given with rations by both North and South;

many Northerners are introduced to tobacco this way. During Sherman's march, Union soldiers, now attracted to the mild, sweet "bright" tobacco of the South, raided warehouses--including Washington Duke's--for some chew on the way home. Some bright made it all the way back. Bright tobacco becomes the rage in the North.

  • 1862: THE CIVIL WAR: First federal USA tax on tobacco; instituted to help pay for the Civil

War, yields about three million dollars.(TSW)

  • 1863: SUMATRA: Nienhuys creates Indonesian tobacco industry. Dutch businessman

Jacobus Nienhuys travels to Sumatra seeking to buy tobacco, but finds poor growing and production facilities; his efforts to rectify the situation are credited with establishing the indonesian tobacco industry.

  • 1863: US Mandates Cigar Boxes. Congress passes a law calling for manufacturers to create

cigar boxes on which IRS agents can paste Civil War excise tax stamps. The beginning of "cigar box art."

  • 1864: CIVIL WAR: The first federal cigarette excise tax is imposed to help pay for the Civil

War.

  • 1864: AGRICULTURE: WHITE BURLEY first cultivated in Ohio Valley; highly absorbent,

chlorophyll-deficient new leaf proves ideal for sweetened chewing tobacco.

  • 1864: BUSINESS: 1st American cigarette factory opens and produces almost 20 million

cigarettes.

  • 1865-70: NEW YORK CITY: Demand for exotic Turkish cigarettes grows in New York City;

skilled European rollers imported by New York tobacco shops. (ATS)

  • 1868: UK: Parliament passes the Railway Bill of 1868, which mandates smoke-free cars to

prevent injury to non-smokers.

  • 1868/69?: BUSINESS: Allen & Gintner's Sweet Caporals brand is introduced.

  • 1870: CONSUMPTION: US has its lowest per capita smoking rate on record - 0.4 cigarettes

(The Tax Burden on Tobacco, Historical Compilation Volume 35, 2000)

  • 1871: BUSINESS: R.A. Patterson founds the "Lucky Strike" company, named for the 1849

California Gold Rush.

  • 1871: TAXES: The federal income tax, instituted in 1862, is repealed, replaced by liquor and

tobacco taxes to finance the federal budget.

  • 1873: BUSINESS: Philip Morris dies. (Yes, that Philip Morris) His wife, Margaret, and

brother, Leopold, take over.

  • 1873: Myers Brothers and Co. markets "Love" tobacco with theme of North-South Civil War

reconcilliation.

  • 1874: BUSINESS: Washington Duke, with his sons Benjamin N. Duke and James Buchanan

Duke, builds his first tobacco factory

  • 1874: BUSINESS: Samuel Gompers creates the first Union label; persuades a consortium of

California cigar makers to apply a label that attest the cigar has been untouched by Chinese labor.

  • 1875: BUSINESS: Allen and Ginter offer a reward of $75,000 for cigarette rolling machine.

(LB)

  • 1875: BUSINESS: R. J. Reynolds founds R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company to produce

chewing tobacco, soon producing brands like Brown's Mule, Golden Rain, Dixie's Delight, Yellow Rose, Purity.

  • 1875: BUSINESS: Richmond, VA: Allen & Ginter cigarette brands ("Richmond Straight Cut

No. 1," "Pet") begin using picture cards to stiffen the pack and give the buyer a premium. Some themes: "Fifty Scenes of Perilous Occupations," "Flags of All Nations," boxers, actresses, famous battles, etc. The cards are a huge hit.(RK)

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