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  • 1875: ART: Georges Bizet's opera, Carmen, based on Merimee's novel about a cigarette girl

in an Andalusian factory, opens.

  • 1876: CENNTENNIAL CELEBRATION: PHILADELPHIA: Allen & Ginter's cigarette

displays are so impressive that some writers thought the Philadelphia exposition marked the birth of the cigarette as well as the telephone. (CC)

  • 1876: Benson & Hedges receives its first royal warrant from Edward VII, Prince of Wales.

  • 1876-11-07: Albert H. Hook of New York City is granted a US patent for a cigarette

manufacturing machine.

  • 1878: BUSINESS: J.E. Liggett & Brother incorporates as Liggett & Myers Company. By

1885 Liggett is world's largest plug tobacco manufacturer; doesn't make cigarettes until the 1890's

  • 1878: BUSINESS: Trading cards and coupons begin being widely used in cigarette packs.

Edward Bok suggested to a manufacturer that the blank "cardboard stiffeners" in the "cigarette sandwich', might have biographies on one side and pictures on the other. The American News Company-distributed Marquis of Lorne cigarettes were the first to have the new picture cards in each pack (GTAT)

  • 1880: CONSUMPTION: US has a per capita smoking rate of 8 cigarettes (The Tax Burden on

Tobacco, Historical Compilation Volume 35, 2000)

  • 1880: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: Leopold Morris buys Margaret's share of the Philip Morris

business, and brings in a new partner.

  • 1880s: USA: Women's Christian Temperance Movement publishes a "Leaflet for Mothers'

Meetings" titled "Narcotics", by Lida B. Ingalls. Discusses evils of tobacco, especially cigarettes. Cigarettes are "doing more to-day to undermine the constitution of our young men and boys than any other one evil" (p. 7). (LB)

  • 1880s: Cigarette cards, previously only used as stiffeners, begin displaying pictures.

  • 1880s: ADVERTISING: Improvements in transportation, manufacturing volume, and

packaging lead to the ability to sell the same branded product nationwide. What can be sold nationwide can and must be advertised nationwide. Advertising agencies sprout like wildflowers. The most advertised product throughout most of the 19th century: elixirs and patent medicines of the "cancer cure" variety.

  • 1880s: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: Mssrs. Richard Benson and William Hedges open a

tobacconist shop near Philip Morris in London.(RK)

  • 1880s. BUSINESS: JB Duke's aggressive saleman Edward Featherston Small hires a cigarette

saleswoman, Mrs. Leonard. In .St. Louis, when retailers ignored him, Small advertised for a saleswoman. A petite, thin-lipped widow, a Mrs. Leonard, applied for the job and was accepted. This little stunt gave the Dukes thousands of dollars of free publicity in the local newspapers.

(CC)

  • 1880: BUSINESS: Bonsack machine granted first cigarette machine patent

  • 1881: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: Philip Morris goes public.

  • 1881: BUSINESS James Buchanan ("Buck") Duke enters the manufacturered cigarette

business, moving 125 Russian Jewish immigrants to Durham, NC. First cigarette: Duke of Durham brand. Duke's factory produces 9.8 million cigarettes, 1.5 % of the total market.

  • 1883: BUSINESS: Oscar Hammerstien receives patent on cigar rolling machine.(TSW)

  • 1883: US ends the 1862 Civil War excise tax on cigars, helping to usher in a 40-year Golden

Age of cigar smoking.

  • 1884: BUSINESS: Duke heads to New York City to take his tobacco business national and

form a cartel that eventually becomes the American Tobacco Co. Duke buys 2 Bonsack machines., getting one of them to produce 120,000 cigarettes in 10 hours by the end of the year.

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