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In this year Duke produces 744 million cigarettes, more than the national total in 1883. Duke's airtight contracts with Bonsack allow him to undersell all competitors.

  • 1885: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: Leopold Morris joins with Joseph Grunebaum to establish

Philip Morris & Company and Grunebaum, Ltd.

  • 1886: BUSINESS: Patent received for machine to manufacture plug tobacco. (LB)

  • 1886: BUSINESS: Tampa, FL: Don Vicente Martinez Ybor opens his first cigar factory.

Others follow. Within a few years, Ybor city will become the cigar capital of the US.

  • 1886: BUSINESS: JB Duke targets women with "Cameo" brand.

  • 1887: ENGLAND: BUSINESS: Leopold Morris and Grunebaum dissolve their partnership.

Company becomes Philip Morris & Co., Ltd.

  • 1887: PALESTINE: A traveler reports that the Arabs of the Syrian Desert get giddy and

headaches from a few whiffs of tobacco. They smoke a local plant 'Hyoscyamus'. (LB)

  • 1887: USA: Advice from the cigar and tobacco price list of M. Breitweiser and Brothers of

Buffalo, Item #5 -- "If you think smoking injurious to your health, stop smoking in the morning". (LB)

  • 1887: USA: Two men held pipe smoking contest that lasted one and a half hours. Victory was

declared when one man filled his pipe for the tenth time, his oppenent did not. (LB)

  • 1887: BUSINESS: His contracts with Bonsack unknown to his competitors, Buck Duke

slashes prices, sparking a price war he knew he'd win.

  • 1887: BUSINESS: Connorton's Tobacco Brand Directory of the United States lists St. Louis

as No. 1 in tobacco output.

  • 1889: SCIENCE: Nicotine and nerve cells reported on. Langley and Dickinson publish

landmark studies on the effects of nicotine on the ganglia; they hypothesize that there are receptors and transmitters that respond to stimulation by specific chemicals. (RK)

  • 1889: USA: ADVERTISING: Buck Duke spends an unheard-of $800,000 in billboard and

newspaper advertising.

  • 1889-04-23: BUSINESS: The five leading cigarette firms, including W. Duke Sons &

Company, unite. James Buchanan "Buck" Duke emerges as the president of the new American Tobacco Company.

  • 1889: Lung cancer is an extremely rare disease: there are only 140 documented cases

worldwide ( Kaminsky M. Ein primres Lungencarcinom mit verhornten Plattenepithelien. Greifswald: Inaug. Diss, 1898.)

  • 1890: CONSUMPTION: US has a per capita smoking rate of 35 cigarettes (The Tax Burden

on Tobacco, Historical Compilation Volume 35, 2000)

  • 1890: CONSUMPTION: Peak of chewing tobacco consumption in U. S., three pounds per

capita. (ATS)

  • c.1890s: USA: Women's Christian Temperance Movement publishes "Narcotics", by E. B.

Ingalls. Pamphlet discusses evils of numerous drugs, tobacco, cocaine, ginger, hashish, and headache medicines. Offers 16 suggestions to workers. (LB)

  • c.1890s: INDONESIA: BUSINESS: "Kretek" cigarettes invented. The story is that Noto

Semito of Kudus was desperate to cure his asthma. He rolled tobacco mixed with crushed cloves in dried corn leaves--and cured his respiratory ailments. He then Began manufacturing clove cigarettes under the name BAL TIGA (Three Balls). He became a millionaire, but competition was so fierce he eventurally died penniless in 1953.

  • c.1890-92: IRAN: Tobacco Rebellion, aka Tobacco Riots. Iranian Islamic clergy, angered by

the Shah's "tobacco concession" to England, issue a fatwa banning tobacco use and trade. The resulting public revolt forces the Shah to revoke the concession presages a century of revolts over foreign influence.

  • 1890: BUSINESS: Key West, with a population of 18,786, is the largest city in Florida. Its

biggest industry is cigar-making, which employs more than 2,000 workers.


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