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manufacturers at auction is pooled and purchased by the Burley Tobacco Growers Cooperative for storage and future sale

  • 1938: SCIENCE: Dr. Raymond Pearl of Johns Hopkins University reports to New York

Academy of Medicine that smokers do not live as long as non-smokers. His findings are printed in the Science News Letter (March 12 (or 4) 1938 p. 163) under the title "Tobacco Smoking and Longevity.""Smoking is associated with a definite impairment of longevity. . . This impairment is proportional to the habitual amount of tobacco usage by smoking, being great for heavy smokers and less for moderate smokers." Of the (6,813 persons reported on, two-thirds of the nonsmokers had lived beyond sixty, but only 46 per cent of the heavy smokers reached age sixty. Time magazine suggested that Pearl's results would frighten tobacco manufacturers to death and "make tobacco users' flesh creep."

  • 1938: RADIO: Artie Shaw's band airs twice weekly. Old Gold cigarettes, the show's sponsor,

bans Billie Holiday, and demands that only the band's white singer, Helen Forrest, be allowed to perform.

  • 1938: MEDIA: Consumer Reports rates 36 cigarette brands.

    • CR notes that Philip Morris lays "great stress in their advertising upon their substitution of glycol for glycerine. The aura of science surrounding their 'proofs' that this makes a less irritating smoke, does not convince many toxicologists that they were valid. Of the many irritating combustion products in tobacco smoke, the modification of one has probably little more than a psychological ffect in reducing irritation felt by the smoker."

    • In blindfold tests, finds little to distinguish brands

    • Knocks "the obvious bias of cigarette manufacturers, as well as of the 'scientists' whom they directly or indirectly subsidize."

    • Rates nicotine content, finding:

      • o

        Chesterfield: 2.3 mg nicotine

        • o

          Marlboro: 2.3 mg nicotine

        • o

          Philip Morris: 2.2 mg nicotine

        • o

          Old Gold: 2.0 mg nicotine

        • o

          Camel: 1.9 mg nicotine

        • o

          Lucky Strike: 1.4 mg nicotine(RK)


    • 4. Philip Morris

    • 5. Old Gold (RK)

  • 1939: STATISTICS: Fortune magazine finds 53% of adult American males smoke; 66% of

males under 40 smoke.

  • 1939: Congress establishes an export corporation to purchase surplus tobacco and sell it


  • 1939: GERMANY: Fritz Lickint, in collaboration with the Reich Committee for the Struggle

against Adictive Drugs and the German Antitobacco League, publishes Tabak und Organismus (Tobacco and the Organism). Proctor calls the 1,100 page volume "arguably the most comprehensive scholarly indictment of tobacco ever published." It blamed smoking for cancers all along the Rauchstrasse ("smoke alley")--lips, tongue, mouth, jaw, esophagus, windpipe and lungs, and included "a convincing argu ent that 'passive smoking' ( Passivrauchen. . . ) posed a serious threat to nonsmokers." [Proctor, The Nazi War on Cancer]

  • 1939: HEALTH: GERMANY: Franz Muller presents "the world's first controlled

epidemiological study of the tobacco-lung cancer relationship." --Proctor. Tabakmissbrauch und Lungencarcinom ("Tobacco Misuse and Lung Carcinoma") finds that "the extraordinary rise in tobacco use [is] the single most important cause of the rising incidence of lung cancer." A brief


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