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  • 1952-09: READER'S DIGEST republishes Roy Norr's "Cancer by the Carton" article

(December, 1952) from the October, 1952 Christian Herald. Norr was the publisher of possibly the first modern anti-smoking periodical, the "Norr Newsletter about Smoking and Health" (NYC)

  • 1953: HEALTH: Dr. Ernst L. Wynder's landmark report finds that painting cigarette tar on the

backs of mice creates tumors. This was the first successful induction of cancer in a lab animal with a tobacco product, the first definitive biological link between smoking and cancer.

  • 1953: BUSINESS: Benson & Hedges' Parliament sales are skyrocketing due to its filter,

though sales are still well behind the major companies' products: B&W's Viceroy, and Lorillard's Kent.

  • 1953: BUSINESS: PR firm Burson-Marsteller is established.

  • 1953: BUSINESS: UK: The house of Benson and Hedges joins Gallaher Limited.

  • 1953: ADVERTISING: AMA bans cigarette ads in its publications.

  • 1953: ADVERTISING: Liggett: L&M: "Just what the doctor ordered"

  • 1953: ADVERTISING: "[Viceroy] gives double-barreled health protection."

  • 1953-12-08: HEALTH: Dr. Alton Ochsner gives a speech in NYC, saying, "the male

population of the United States would be decimated if cigarette smoking increases as it has in the past unless some steps are taken to remove the cancer-producing factor from cigarettes." Tobacco stocks drop 1 to 4 points the next day. This speech is considered by some the last straw, which led tobacco executives join together and to seek out John Hill.

  • 1953-12-10,11: BUSINESS: In response to an urgent telegram from Paul Hahn (ATC),

cigarette executives meet in New York City for first time since price-fixing scandal of 1939, and agree to consult with John Hill.

  • 1953-12-15: BUSINESS: Tobacco Execs Plan Counterattack on Smoking Studies. Plaza

Hotel, New York City: Tobacco executives meet to find a way to deal with recent scientific data pointing to the health hazards of cigarettes. Participants included John Hill of Hill & Knowlton, his key aides, and the following tobacco company presidents: Paul D. Hahn (ATC), O. Parker McComas (PM), Joseph F. Cullman (B&H), J. Whitney Peterson, U.S. Tobacco Co. Here's the text of BACKGROUND MATERIAL ON THE CIGARETTE INDUSTRY CLIENT, the H&K memo covering the meeting, and here's the document in .pdf format, Minnesota Trial Exhibit 18905

  • 1953-12-28: BUSINESS: Hill meets again with tobacco execs to report on his initial study of

the smoking and health problem.

  • 1954: CONSUMPTION: Per capita cigarette consumption drops another 6%, making a falloff

of about 10 percent over the two years in which the Wynder skin-painting experiment and Hammond-Horn population study were reported.

  • 1954: Doll and Hill publish The Mortality of Doctors and Their Smoking Habits, in the BMJ;

it leads to most doctors giving up smoking, confirming the link between lung cancer and smoking. At a news conference, the Minister of Health, Iain Macleod--chain-smoking throughout the conference--said,: "It must be regarded as established that there is a relationship between smoking and cancer of the lung."

  • 1954: BUSINESS: Philip Morris (Australia) Ltd. is set up as PM's first major affiliate outside

the U.S.

  • 1954: Cigarette companies sponsor ad disputing evidence that cigarette smoking causes lung

cancer. (Source: Chronology Of Major Events In Cigarette Smoking, Marketing, And Health , Bates #2025019398)

  • 1954: Don Cooley, in the process of writing an article for True Magazine, is contacted by Hill

and Knowlton. "Considerable information and assistance was provided Donald G. Cooley in the preparation for his story in True Magazine. This entailed conferences with the author to work on factual revisions. . . Further research and assembling of material and personal conferences have been extended Mr. Cooley to provide him requested aid in his writing of a 48-page, low-priced

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