[A]s a result of the distribution in the U.S.A., articles questioning a link between smoking and cancer sprouted. In some press accounts, the Hueper story took precedence over the reports of Drs. Hammond and Wynder. [Note: Wilhelm Hueper had been through years of battling corporate interests over water, air and occupational pollution; while recognizing the evidence for smoking-related causation, he felt these issues could be slighted by an over-emphasis on smoking. He reportedly refused a $250,000 a year offer from the Tobacco Institute.]
1954-10: PROPAGANDA: Reprints of condensed version of Hueper paper appear in
CURRENT MEDICAL DIGEST, October 1954. The magazine reaches 123,000 doctors who are in active practice.
1954-10: LITIGATION: Pritchard v. L&M filed in Federal District Court, Pennsylvania Lung
1954-11: LITIGATION: Ross v. PM filed in Federal District Court, Missouri Laryngeal
1955: Dorn and Baum (NIH) 6-year (1946 - 1952) study of the mortality rates of 11,000
American Tobacco Co. employees is published in the Journal of Industrial Medicine and Surgery. (Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue, "Draft 1: Corporate Activity Project") (pp 109-110))
1955: CONSUMPTION: Smokers: Males: 56.9%; Females: 28.4%
1955: BUSINESS: Philip Morris introduces a flip-top box.
1955: BUSINESS: Philip Morris Incorporated becomes the company's corporate name.
1955: INDUSTRY RESEARCH: Independent of its Research Department, ATC President
Robert Karl Heimann participated in the last two parts of a five-party epidemiological study of American Tobacco Co.'s own employees. The five parts were described as follows:
1. Dorn and Baum (NIH) studied the mortality rates during the period 1946 to 1952 of 11,000 employees. This was published in 1955 in the Journal of Industrial Medicine and Surgery.
2. A. Finkner (UNC) studied the smoking habits of these same employees, and published his results in the "North Carolina Mimeo Series' in the late 1950s.
3. Haag (MCV) and Hanmer (American) updated the Dorn-Baum, study of mortality rates for the period 1953 to 1956. This was published in about 1958 in the Journal of industrial Medicine and Surgery.
4. Cohen (American consultant) and Heimann updated the mortality rates for the period 19571960. The study was entitled 'Heavy Smokers with Low Mortality" and was published in 1963 in the Journal of Industrial Medicine and Surgery.'
Cohen and Heimann published 'Heavy Smokers with Low Mortality and the Urban Factor in Lung Cancer Mortality" in 1964.14"
1955: BUSINESS: MARKET SHARE: American Tobacco is still #1 in US, with 33% of the
market. Philip Morris is sixth.
1955: TV: CBS' "See It Now" airs first TV show linking cigarette smoking with lung cancer
and other diseases. (For the first time on TV, Edward R. Murrow is not seen smoking. He had not quit; he felt it was "too late" to stop. Murrow died of lung cancer in 1965.)
1955: LITIGATION: Rose Cipollone, now 30, switches from Chesterfield to L&Ms.)
1955-08: LITIGATION: Lartigue v. L&M/RJR filed in Federal District Court, Louisiana