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  • 1955-09: REGULATION: FTC publishes rules prohibiting health references in cigarette

advertising; references to the "throat, larynx, lungs, nose, or other parts of the body" or to "digestion, energy, nerves, or doctors."

  • 1956: HEALTH: Lung cancer death rate among white males is 31.0 in 100,000, resulting in

29,000 deaths.

  • 1956: INDUSTRY RESEARCH: CORESTA founded (DOJ)

  • 1956: BUSINESS: P. Lorillard discontinues use of "Micronite" filter in its Kent cigarettes.

  • 1956: BUSINESS: RJR introduces Salem, the first filter-tipped menthol cigarette.

  • 1956: BUSINESS: BAT acquires overseas business of Benson & Hedges.

  • 1957: Effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on children's birth weight studied.

(Simpson WJ. A preliminary report on cigarette smoking and the incidence of prematurity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1957;73:808-815)

  • 1957: PEOPLE: DR. EVARTS GRAHAM dies of lung cancer. He wrote to DR. ALTON

OCHSNER 2 weeks before his death, "Because of your long friendship, you will be interested in knowing that they found that I have cancer in both my lungs. As you know I stopped smoking several years ago but after having smoked much as I did for years, too much damage had been done."

  • 1957: BUSINESS: Philip Morris Inc. acquires Milprint and Nicolet Paper Co. of Milwaukee--

it's first non-tobacco purchase.

  • 1957: BUSINESS: Joseph Cullman, III, becomes president of Philip Morris

  • 1957: BUSINESS: UK: Gallaher launches "Your Never alone with a Strand" TV commercial.

The lonely soul walking rain-swept streets with a turned-up collar telegraphs to viewers what a sad person he is. While everyone remembers and admires the moody ad, no one wants to identify with the protagonist; the brand dies. A famous disaster.

  • 1957: President Dwight D. Eisenhower talks at a press conference about his battle to quit

smoking after suffering a heart attack. "I'm a little like the fellow who said I don't know whether I'll start again, but I'll never stop again."

  • 1957: UK: The Medical Research Council (MRC) accepts smoking/lung cancer link. The

Minister of Health announces that the Government accepts the evidence now - while he smokes a cigarette. MRC also isues a statement that air pollution does play a role in lung cancer, but it is a "relateively minor one in comparison with cigarette smoking." In December of 2002, Virginia Berridge said secret papers reveal that the cabinet committe on lung cancer feared that the the statement was modified to downplay the role of air pollution to save the government embarrassment.

  • 1957: "Science Looks at Smoking" by Eric Northrup, was a book written "for the layman,"

and claimed that "all those who have attempted to prove the evil effects of tobacco have failed to establish a valid scientific case." Northrup admitted that some people by virtue of their constitution should not smoke, just as people with ulcers should not eat oranges; he also noted, though, that such prescriptions "point more to a deficiency in the patient than to any noxious quality in tobacco per se." Northrup conceded that some dangers may be real, but his overall message was one of reassurance: a chapter titled "Tobacco: Fact and Fiction," for example, characterizes smoking as a "positive factor in everyday living." (Proctor testimony, 2004)

  • 1957-07-12: First Surgeon General declares link between smoking and lung cancerl. SG

Leroy E. Burney issues "Joint Report of Study Group on Smoking and Health," stating that, "It is clear that there is an increasing and consistent body of evidence that excessive cigarette smoking is one of the causative factors in lung cancer," the first time the Public Health Service had taken a position on the subject. Burney had put the study group together in 1955, with the help of NCI, NHI, ACS and AHA.

  • 1957-03: MEDIA: READERS DIGEST article links smoking with lung cancer, discloses that

the tar and nicotine yields of the filter brands had been rising steadily for several years and now approximated the level of the older and presumably more hazardous unfiltered brands. (RK)

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