1957-07: MEDIA: READERS DIGEST article rates tar/nicotine levels. RJR's filterless
Camel, for example, yielded 31 mg. of tar and 2.8 mg. of nicotine per cigarette compared with 32.6 mg. and 2.6 mg. per Winston. Marlboro has one of the worst; in response, Leo Burnett goes into 2 years of the unsuccessful "settleback" campaign--Marlboro men in relaxed poses.
1957: MEDIA: Ad agency BBDO drops READERS DIGEST over tobacco article. Barry McCarthy, onetime executive at Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn, said that in the 1950's, probably 1957, he was the account supervisor on the Reader's Digest business when the Digest ran one of its many anti-cigarette articles. American Tobacco, maker of Lucky Strike, was a major client at the same time. The article enraged J. T. Ross, American's public relations man, and he got the client to insist that B.B.D.O. decide between the magazine and the tobacco company. Since the latter billed $30 million or so, which was huge by 1950's standards, and the Digest a couple of million, the agency relucantly dropped the Digest
NYT, April 7, 1988; Advertising; RJR Flap Not the First In Cigarette Ad History By Philip H.
1957: REGULATION: Pope Pius XII suggests that the Jesuit order give up smoking. There were only 33,000 jesuits in the world at that point, so the industry was not worried about losing this handful of smokers. They feared that the Pope or other church leaders might ask, as a magazine headline once put it, "When are Cigs a Sin?"--E. Whelan, "A Smoking Gun"
1957: REGULATION: Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act is amended. The manufacturer must
bear the burden of demonstrating the product is safe and effective. Products previously on the market, those "generally recognized among experts as safe," or "natural constituents of food" are exempt.
1957-03-01: INDUSTRY RESEARCH: At the cooperative British tobacco industry Tobacco
Research Council laboratory at Harrogate, an internal report by Batco refers to cancer by the code name, zephyr: "As a result of several statistical surveys, the idea has arisen that there is a causal relation between zephyr and tobacco smoking, particularly cigarette smoking,"
1957: HEALTH: The British Medical Research Council issues "Tobacco Smoking and Cancer
of Lung," which states that "... a major part of the increase [in lung cancer] is associated with tobacco smoking, particularly in the form of cigarettes" and that "the relationship is one of direct cause and effect."
1957: HEALTH: PREGNANCY: In the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr.
Winea J. Simpson asked what effects smoking might have on the unborn child. The incidence of premature births and of all the complications that go with prematurity was twice as great for smoking mothers as it was for nonsmoking mothers. Simpson's paper confirmed that children of smokers are not only born early, but also weigh less and are more likely to be stillborn or die within one month of birth. (ASG)
1957-07: REGULATION: Sen. Bennett (R-UT) introduces bill requiring cigarette packs carry
label, "Warning: Prolonged use of this product may result in cancer, in lung, heart and circulatory ailments, and in other diseases." [Bates 03553092]
1957-07: REGULATION: BLATNIK REPORT: The Blatnik hearings are the first testimony
presented to Congress on smoking and health. The hearings center on whether the FTC should regulate advertising claims of filtered cigarettes. John A. Blatnik (D-MN) was chairman of the Legal and Monetary Affairs Subcommittee of the House Government Operations Committee. After hearing that filtered cigarettes deliver about as much tar and nicotine as unfiltered due to the stronger tobaccos used, the subcommitte moves to grant the FTC injunctive powers over deceptive cigarette advertising. The Blatnik Report concludes, "The cigarette manufacturers have deceived teh American public through their advertising of cigarettes." Shortly after the report is issued, Blatnik is stripped of his chairmanship and his subcommittee is dissolved.
1957-12: LITIGATION: Green v. American Tobacco Co. Filed. The case will not conclude
until 1970--12 years after Green's death.