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history perspective of subsidy use states that its efficient use as one of the major reasons German system is stronger. Chart on page 19 compares US vs. Germany. http://www.nvc.vt.edu/uap/people/documents/Buehler TRR Transit website.pdf

Size, Structure and Distribution of Transport Subsidies in Europe European Environment Agency March 2007 This report provides an overview of European Union transportation subsidies, but does not provide the portion of total cost financed through fare box recovery. The report also does not break out data by individual country, but looks at EU as a whole. The report identifies the major types of subsidies for each transportation mode. This report summarizes data on the size, structure, and distribution of transport subsidies in Europe. It collects, structures, and streamlines empirical findings from literature and expert knowledge, and puts them into context. In this way, the report improves transparency on the existence of transport subsidies, raises awareness on their financial and environmental relevance, and fosters efficient and consistent decision-making in transport policy. The information provided in this report is useful for everyone interested in sustainable transport and subsidies, especially for those working in transport, fiscal and environmental policy having direct or indirect influence on decision-making. This includes people in parliaments, governments, and ministries and their administration. It also includes those who provide advice for these policy decisions, in particular people in technical authorities, advisory boards and expert groups as well as transport experts, consultants and journalists. Furthermore, this report may encourage discussion and serve as a starting point for future work on transport subsidies. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/technical report 2007 3/at download/file

Other Related Information

Public Transportation: Benefits for the 21st Century APTA, 2007 This overview highlights the many benefits of public transportation for individuals and communities. The economic, environmental, and social benefits of public transit are detailed. It includes the latest statistics and examples to illustrate the benefits. http://www.apta.com/resources/reportsandpublications/Documents/twenty first century.pdf


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