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Table of Contents Executive Summary............................................................................................................ 2

Acknowledgements............................................................................................................. 5 Table of Contents................................................................................................................ 6

List of Tables ...................................................................................................................... 8

List of Figures..................................................................................................................... 9

Preface............................................................................................................................... 10

  • I.

    Overview ....................................................................................................................... 12

    • A.

      Purpose..................................................................................................................... 12

    • B.

      Definitions of Thresholds......................................................................................... 13

    • C.

      FALCPA .................................................................................................................. 14

  • II.

    Food Allergy ................................................................................................................ 15

    • A.

      Adverse Reactions to Foods..................................................................................... 15

    • B.

      Mechanism of Allergic Reaction ............................................................................. 16

    • C.

      Range of Adverse Effects......................................................................................... 17

    • D.

      Prevalence................................................................................................................ 19

    • E.

      Allergenic Foods of Concern ................................................................................... 19

    • F.

      Measuring Thresholds .............................................................................................. 21

    • G.

      Exposure .................................................................................................................. 25

    • H.

      Collective Allergens................................................................................................. 29

    • I.

      Published Challenge Studies ..................................................................................... 31

    • J.

      Food Treatments to Reduce Allergenicity ................................................................ 32

  • III.

    Celiac Disease............................................................................................................. 34

    • A.

      Introduction.............................................................................................................. 34

    • B.

      Mechanism of Pathogenesis..................................................................................... 34

    • C.

      Range of Adverse Effects......................................................................................... 35

    • D.

      Prevalence................................................................................................................ 36

    • E.

      Celiac Foods of Concern .......................................................................................... 37

    • F.

      Gluten Contamination of Grains............................................................................... 38

    • G.

      Gluten Challenge Studies......................................................................................... 39

    • H.

      Measuring Gluten in Food ....................................................................................... 40

    • I.

      Gluten-Free Labeling................................................................................................. 41

  • IV.

    Discussion and Recommendations ............................................................................. 42

    • A.

      General Approaches................................................................................................. 42

    • B.

      General Criteria for Evaluating and Selecting Approaches to Establish

Thresholds............................................................................................................. 45

  • C.

    Allergen Thresholds: Evaluation and Findings........................................................ 47

  • D.

    Gluten Threshold: Evaluation and Findings ............................................................ 58

Revised Threshold Report

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