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“The information age’s toxic garbage” A review of electronic waste (e-waste) ... - page 14 / 24

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BATTERY RECYCLING

Hazardous automobile Pb-acid battery recycling ratio is 90% in the U.S..

In US annually 3 billion, in Germany 31000t in England 20000t and in Turkey 11000 t household batteries are used.

Household batteries may contain Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, Ni, As, Mn, Cr etc.

88% Hg and 54% Cd, in MSW in the U.S., 10% Zn, 67% Ni and  85% Cd in MSW in Germany come from batteries.

In EU, 75% of batteries used at home and 95% of batteries used at industry will be collected and recycled soon.

Recycling of mixed batteries are difficult and present vapor hazards.

Alkaline, Zn-C, NiCd, Lion, NiMH, mercuric oxide and silver oxide button batteries are recyclable.

NiCd batteries are more hazardous than NiMH and Lion batteries.

There are several hydro/pyro metalur-gical processes for battery recycling (Sumitomo, Recytec, Atech, Snam-Savam, Sab-Nife, Inmetco, Waelz, TNO and Accurec etc).

Recycling fee changes from 300-2000 $/t.

Battery recycling requires a high amount of energy.

     Alkaline and Zn-C Batteries Recycling Flowsheet

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