Cal Poly Pomona
Some of the measures were extracted from the BIE (1992) report, discussed earlier.
emphasized productivity performance. He noted measurement scope:
measures as being, perhaps, the most that productivity could be divided into
each with a
Partial productivity: ratio of total output to a single input, such as labor, materials or capital.
Total factor or value-added productivity: total sales less bought-in goods, materials and services.
Total productivity: ratio of total output to total input.
Duma (1999) argued that the ton-kilometer, although widely used, was not a powerful enough measure to differentiate between freight transport activities, or to characterize the importance of transport modes. Although the author did not recommend any measures, the following were suggested for consideration:
Weight of transported goods
Transport tariff revenue
Number of vehicles
Capacity measurements (no examples given)
Operation time/haulage time
Fuel & energy consumption
Utilization/crowd indexes (no definition provided)
Artificial indexes (to be defined by the user)
A Transportation Research Board conference (TRB, 2001) brought together Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and State Department of Transportation officials to “hash” out several performance measurement issues, including freight movement. Although no definitive measures were identified or recommended, a heavy emphasis was placed on the data needed to compute key measures. One conclusion is that any performance metric, for it to be useful, must be tractable. Also, a list of feasible metrics may represent the constraints of data availability. Gunasekeran, et al. (2001) identified multiple measures in four supply chain categories: plan, source, make-assemble, and delivery-customer. Their proposed measures are listed in Table 5.
T a b l e 5 . S u p p l y C h a i n P e r f o r m a n c e M e t r i c s ( G u n a s e k e r a n , e t a l . , 2 0 0 1 Make-Assemble ) Source Plan
Total order cycle time Customer order path
Level of supply chain partnership
Capacity utilization Effectiveness of scheduling techniques Productivity of human resources Actual vs. planned throughput Inventory levels Manufacturing cost
Delivery-Customer Delivery-to-request date Delivery-to-commit date Order fill lead time Percentage of goods in transit Number of faultless notes invoiced Flexibility of delivery systems Logistics distribution cost Customer query time Customer perception of service Total logistics cost Total cash flow time Total inventory cost