Cal Poly Pomona
Hwy.-Rail Grade Xings
“Railcars on line” is the average daily online inventory of freight railcars. Terminal dwell time is the average time a railcar resides at a specified terminal. The train speed is calculated by dividing the train- miles by the total operating time, excluding terminal time. Train speed represents line-haul movement between terminals.
All railroads, including freight and passenger, report their incident data to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). Year 2005 freight railroad safety data are summarized in Table 9. Note that the FRA reports incident data by railroad for Class I and Regional operators; such detailed reporting is not done in the motor carrier industry. Safety statistics, which could also serve as performance measures for the individual railroads, include those listed in the table. Incident rates can be used to compare railroads.
Table 9. Safety Statistics for Selected Class I Railroads, 2005
Railroad BNSF CSX KCS Norfolk UP
NOTES: BNSF = Burlington Northern & Santa Fe; CSX = CSX Transportation; KCS = Kansas City Southern; Norfolk = Norfolk Southern; UP = Union Pacific; Total = all incidents; Incident rates are per million train-miles; Employee injuries rate is per 200,000 (work) hours; Yard incidents rate is per million yard switching train-miles; NA = not available.
Ports and Ships
Chung (1993) noted that the primary performance indicators used by ports are the vessel turnaround time, and the tonnage handled per ship day in port. The vessel turnaround time is the length of stay from time of arrival to time of departure. A variation of turnaround time is dwell time, which is the number of days that a ton of cargo (as opposed to a vessel) remains in port. Chung also noted that port productivity is measured by tons per gang hour, and TEUs per crane or hook hour. The former measure applies to general, non-container cargo, in which a work station is referred to as a “gang.” The latter measure applies to containers – cranes and hooks are the equipment used to move and place containers. Ports are also concerned with financial performance, such as operating surpluses, operating expenses, possibly as ratios to the tonnage of cargo handled. Total TEUs, total tonnage, trade values (total and by type of cargo), commodity values and volumes, and market shares are also used by the ports to establish benchmarks.
The Maritime Administration (MARAD) maintains a statistical database on the U.S.’ 300 or so ports. Each of the statistics, also reflective of performance, measures the level of activity at each port. The port rankings in Table 1 use two of these measures: annual shipment weight and annual TEUs. The other annual measures used include:
Total calls (all vessels)
Total capacity of all calls (total metric tons of all ships loaded to water line)
Total tanker vessel calls and capacity
Total product vessel calls and capacity
Total crude oil vessel calls and capacity
Total container ship calls and capacity (in TEUs)
Total dry bulk cargo vessel calls and capacity
Total ro-ro (roll-on roll-off container) vessel calls and capacity