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W. Cottrell

Cal Poly Pomona

Figure 1. Class I Railroads (BNSF = Burlington Northern & Santa Fe; CN/GTW = Canadian National/ Grand Trunk Western; CP/SOO = Canadian Pacific/ Soo Line; CSX = CSX Transportation; FXE = Ferrocarril Mexicano; KCS/KCSM = Kansas City Southern; NS = Norfolk Southern; UP = Union Pacific). SOURCE = American Association of Railroads.

ly-owned). The port authorities are separate from the companies that operate the marine vessels. There are over 300 ports in the U.S. Table 1 lists the top 20 ports in the U.S. in 2005, by total annual shipment weight, and by total number of 20-foot equivalents (i.e., number of container equivalents). Many of the busiest ports by total weight of shipments were along the Gulf Coast, where the primary goods were oil and petroleum products. The busiest container ports were at Los Angeles and Long Beach, with Oakland the fourth-busiest. California has 12 ports of various capacities levels of activities, three of which are among the five busiest ports in the U.S.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains a 200+ page list of marine vessel companies (WTLUS 2006), thereby suggesting the size and number of participants in the industry. These companies operate barges, cargo carriers, container ships, pushboats, tugboats, and other types of freight vessels. The five largest marine vessel companies in 2006, in terms of the number of vessels operated, included Ingram Barge Company (4,210 vessels; based in Nashville, Tennessee), American Commercial Lines (3,266; Jeffersonville, Missouri), American River Transportation Company (2,267; Ama, Louisiana), AEP Memco (1,770; Chesterfield, Missouri), and Kirby Inland Marine (1,090; Houston, Texas).


Pipelines in the U.S. carry energy commodities, including oil and petroleum products, and natural gas. A total of 868 billion ton-miles of oil and gas were moved by pipeline in the U.S. in 2003. The oil and gas pipeline networks are each divided into three functions: gathering, transportation or transmission, and dis-


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