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and educational problem. Step by step, naturalist pull was overshadowed by the drive of social sciences and modern languages and literature, from which stemmed a current of nation–liberating ideology. In 1848 the events reached its peak – the students formed, apart from many other associations, an armed Student Militia so that they could subsequently, during the uprising in June, lead the fights on barricades from the beleaguered Klementinum.

Repressions following the suppression of the uprising mangled education for a long time to come. A new curriculum was introduced, students’ associations forced to dissolve, and many students as well as teachers were disciplined. Even the most famous Czech expert on natural sciences and professor of physiology at the Faculty of Medicine in Prague from 1849, Jan Evangelista Purkyně (1787–1869), was under police surveillance. His prominent pupil, Jan N. Čermák, the originator of rear rhinoscopy, left Prague to found Faculties of Physiology at several middle European universities. Also Prof. Ferdinand Arlt moved away just before his milestone of a textbook on eye disorder and ailments came out.

The abrupt fall of Bach’s absolutist regime in 1859 ignited Czech nationalist movement which came hand in hand with unshackled development of sciences. Students’ associations were revived along with a number of magazines and chronicles, literary and musical parties, and the Universities ventured forth with Czech language as a language of instruction. Czech professors and associate professors, having taken their habilitations, went on to new clinics. At that time the office of the dean of the Faculty was administered for example by Edwin Klebs (1879–1880), the discoverer of the originating infection of diphtheria, typhoid, and other early infections (cf. the eponymous bacterial family), August Breisky (1880–1881), gynecologist and meticulous follower of Semmelweis’ and Lister’s teaching on aseptic, as well as Karl Toldt (1881–1882), author of a famous anatomical atlas and founder of the Department of Anatomy.

In 1882 the monarch endorsed the law which divided the Prague University in two parts: Czech and German.

T. G. Masaryk was an influential personality in the development of the Czech University: he became its first professor and his humanitarian and international philosophy wielded immense influence especially over young Czech intelligentsia. Czech textbooks

and magazines took off, the famous twenty–seven part ‘Otto’s Encyclopaedia’ was published, Czech schools of science emerged, e.g. Gebauer’s Bohemistics, Goll’s History, Strouhal’s Physics. Let us list a few from a number of founders of the Prague School of Medicine: internists Eiselt, Meixner, Thomayer, Ladislav Syllaba, and pathologist Hlava.

By the number of its students the Czech University soon three times surpassed the German University, partly also because there were enrolled plenty of students from other Slav nations. The German part of the University was significant for taking a lion’s share in extending the system of education into the Middle Europe for generations to come, thus being influential not only for Bohemia and other regions but also for all German–speaking nations in Middle Europe. To select out of all deans of the German Faculty of Medicine at least a few, we ought to mention a couple which will stay forever immortal – the physiologist Ewald Hering (1894–1895), and the pathologist Hans Chiari (1896–1897). As for other members of the administration in German departments, we should mention its rector Ernst Mach (1883–1884). In 1912–1913 Albert Einstein, the author of the Theory of Relativity, worked here.

In 1891 several events took place overall having an immense impact on further development of Czech education and culture: the Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts was founded, and a Convention of Progressive Slav Students was held in Prague. The Convention put forward and ratified an agenda, which would deal with the plight of national and democratic rights as well as with social questions. At that time, demonstrations against conservative professors shifted from lecture rooms and auditoria in the street and fomented movements of the youth, which culminated in a violent anti–dynasty demonstration on the ruler’s birthday on the 17th August 1893.

In the first two decades of the 20th century, the core of the University work and progress consisted especially in scientific research. We find many prominent Czech scientists and scholars practicing at the University in those years: Professor of Chemistry B. Brauner, naturalist B. Němec, Professor of Experimental Physics B. Kučera. Then there were already enrolled female students at the Prague University (to be exact, since 1897). In 1919 Charles–Ferdinand University was abolished and its Czech part underwent a transformation into Charles University again. An independent German university was founded, and lasted until 1945 when this

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