discrepancy was terminated for good.
Every student of Medicine shall sooner or later encounter termini such as Hering’s Channels, Epstein’s Symptom, Zaufal’s Sign, Weil–Felix’s Reaction, Klausner’s Test, Biedl’s Syndrome, Chiari’s Malformace, Kahler’s or Pick’s Disease, Schlof–Fer’s Tumour, Elschnig’s Pearls, Breisky and Knaus’ Method, Gussenbauer’s Clipper, Hasner’s Operation, Schauty, Steinach’s Operation, will possibly read about Richard von Zeynek’s diatermal treatment, etc. The above mentioned are names of professors of German Prague Faculty of Medicine, alma mater to a number of famous students: for instance Hans Hugo Selye, the originator of the Adaptation Syndrome Theory and Stress Reaction, graduated here, as well as Prague natives Gerta Theresa Radnitz and Carl Ferdinand Cori, later husband and wife, winners of the Nobel Prize for Medicine (1947) for their joint discoveries in the sphere of the metabolism of carbohydrates.
The University status changed with the establishment of independent Czechoslovak Republic in 1918. It became the first Czechoslovak university and its students took a significant part in creating the ‘atmosphere’ of the First Republic. Acrid debates and opinion clashes among the devotees of different movements followed only to be swallowed by the threat of German fascism and subsequently transformed into the resistance to Nazi terror. As to the public response among intelligentsia, it redoubled with the publication of literary and critical essays and lectures by F. X. Šalda, and works by controversial professor of music Z. Nejedlý. To quote from scientific work, we might mention studies by Bedřich Hrozný, who deciphered Chetite writing. Let us mention – from tens and tens of teachers and professors of the University whose esteem and reputation spread abroad – at least the linguist Roman Jakobson and historian Josef Pekař.
The importance of the Faculty rose again, the number of its clinics increased from fourteen to twenty, and many foreign students were enrolled. Among prominent professors of the Faculty of Medicine between the wars were for instance world–famous physiologist, pioneer in endocrinology, discoverer of Ferritin, author of the theory of stimuli, co–founder of cybernetics and inventor of spaciocardiography Vilém Laufberger, ambidextrous internist Josef Pelnář, founder of clinical neurology Kamil Henner, outstanding surgeon Arnold Jirásek, and
founder of plastic surgery František Burian.
Fascist invasion to Czechoslovakia stirred students to participation in demonstrations on the 28th October 1939. When police tried to stomp down, a student, Jan Opletal, was killed. His burial became yet another anti–fascist manifestation on 15th November 1939. Hitler’s nomenclature used it as a pretext to brutally impinge on Czech universities and students. On the 17th November 1939 Prague dormitories were invaded and seized, 1200 Czech students taken to the concentration camp in Sachsenhausen, 9 students, leaders of the movement, were executed on the spot. Czech universities closed down, their buildings being freely available to SS troops, German universities, war industry, and for other purposes. The 17th November did not stay the only brutal revenge of the Nazis, nevertheless, it did remain a symbol of students’ resistance against Fascism. In 1941 it was proclaimed International Students’ Day in 1941.
In the war years Czech students and intelligentsia took part in various underground movements and organizations. 23 professors and other university teachers were executed – let us mention at least the professors of physics František Závišek and Václav Dolejšek, zoologist Jaroslav Štorkán, expert in Slav culture Josef Páta, sociologist Josef Fischer, and internists Alexandr Gjurič and Miloš Nedvěd. To Czech and Slovak nations the Charles University in Prague became a symbol of national culture, by the Nazis inexorably preordained to perish.
Post–war era bore the stamp of reconstruction of the national economy, which had been destroyed and devastated by war. Also the students did their best to aid the devastated economy and clarify political wings and opinions at the University. Increasing number of students showed their interest in university studies.
An outstanding biologist, doctor Jan Bělehrádek was the rector and subsequently pro–rector of the Charles University in 1945 and 1945–1946. After World War II, Josef Čančík became the first dean of the Faculty of Medicine in Prague, the first (vice–deans of the new Faculties of Medicine at Charles University were Ivo Mačela (in Pilzen) and Bohuslav Bouček (in Hradec Králové).
In February 1948, however, all hopes for democracy and free and independent nation were crushed. The sixth birthday of the Charles University sarcastically began a new era of dogma. Marx–Lenin ideology forced a number of professors