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Europe After The Lisbon Treaty. Strategies for the Future

in banks’ debit columns. Zbi- gniew Jagiełło, President of the Board at Bank PKO BP, pointed out that such directives do t, for instance, Poland’s situation. According to him we should try by all means to counteract such ideas which relate to dierent si- tuations but apply also to us. We should try to introduce modi- cations as within the framework of the so-called famous Europe- an directives there are certain implementation freedoms.

he example of Poland cle- arly shows that despite the fact that most depo- sits are opened for a period of time shorter than a year we do not have problems with rolling mortgage or investment loans. The Polish banking market proved crisis-resistant. All the banks survived it and the there was not even one situation requiring state aid. It does not mean, however, that our banking system does not have any weak spots. One of them is certainly the level of ‘bank exc- lusion’, which Tomasz Bogus, President of the Board at Bank Pocztowy S.A. pointed to stating that the die- rence between the level of bank exclusion in the old EU member states and Poland is still very big. Today it no longer amounts to forty percent, however, the dierence still reaches ten to twenty percent. How, if at all, do nancial institutions and banks try or mana- ge to counteract nancial exclusion? We may be pro- vocative and say that there is no such complex oer, nevertheless it seems that we are undertaking ever more actions taking us in a good direction. T Henryka Bochniarz, President, Polish Confederation of Private Employers Lewiatan, Poland

H owever, despite many problems and crisis si- tuations, caused, to a large extent by the ope- rations of nancial markets, the nal result is positive, which was pointed out by Cezary Stypuł- kowski, Managing Director at J.P. Morgan. According to him developed countries have not accelerated. Ca- pital ow which used to reach billions of dollars a year in the private sector, amounted to over six hundred billion in the record-high year 2007. This is a net inux of money to these countries. Poland is an important

Peter Tils, CEO for Central & Eastern Europe, Deutsche Bank AG, Germany


Economic challenges of globalisation


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