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Reese, Rosenfeld / QUESTIONING CONVENTIONAL WISDOM

Ohio cases. The Ohio case study cities were Coshocton, Fairborn, and Kettering. Fairborn and Kettering are suburbs of Dayton, whereas Coshocton is in the central part of the state at the beginning of the Appalachian region. Coshocton is a predominantly White city with high poverty and unemployment, according to the 1990 census, much like Cadillac, Michigan. It has an unreformed governmental system with a strong mayor, parti- san elections, and a council with at-large and ward seats. Kettering has a city manager with nonpartisan elec- tions and both at-large and ward council seats. It is a much healthier city, with lower poverty and unemploy- ment rates at the time of the survey. Fairborn has a slightly higher non-White population as well as relatively high poverty and unemployment. It has a reformed governmental structure with at-large council seats, non- partisan elections, and a city manager.

Ontario cases. The Ontario cities selected were Cornwall, Gloucester, and Oakville. Gloucester is a sub- urb of Ottawa, whereas Cornwall is an hour’s drive from both Ottawa and Montreal. Oakville is a suburb of To- ronto. Cornwall exhibited very high unemployment and poverty, according to the 1991 census. It is an inde- pendent unit of government, which means that it is not part of a two-tier, federated, or otherwise consolidated system, increasingly more common in Ontario. It has a city administrator (equivalent to a city manager), at- large seats, and nonpartisan council elections. At the time of the research and writing, Gloucester was part of a regional system of government, the Ottawa/Carleton region. It had moderate levels of poverty and unemploy- ment and combines a city manager system with nonpartisan and ward-based council elections. Oakville main- tains a town governmental structure although it is the largest of the case cities. It has ward-based elections with a town manager. Its economy was very healthy at the time of the survey, with low levels of poverty and unem- ployment, and little change in unemployment over a 10-year period.

APPENDIX B Factor Analysis: Independent Variables

Factor

Loadings

Community input Elected neighborhood commissions Progrowth and no-growth groups evenly represented Community groups primarily determine policies Business input Mostly progrowth groups are represented Local business leaders primarily determine policies Business needs surveys are used to develop policies Representatives of nonlocal businesses primarily determine policies Extraregional competition Community seeks to attract firms from outside the region Community seeks to attract firms from North America Community seeks to attract firms from foreign countries City is in competition with others in the nation Residential need for service Percentage in poverty Percentage unemployed Resources Staff Budget Evaluation and forecasting Post hoc evaluation Cost/benefit analysis Cost/effectiveness analysis Internal rate of return Strategic planning Economic forecasting Input/output analysis Market analysis Turbulence I have to spend too much of my time “firefighting” rather than on longer term problems.

.64 .75 .62

.56 .76 .55 .60

.79 .89 .82 .54

.89 .89

.82 .82

.61 .74 .83 .77 .77 .78 .78 .74

.73

(continued)

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