Total number of inducements
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY / November 2001
Economic Development Effort
Logistic regression model Economic development expenditures
1, if dollars expended on economic development in fiscal year 1994-1995; 0, if no dollars spent.
Linear regression model Economic development expendituresa
Total dollars expended on economic development in fiscal year 1994-1995 (includes only cities spending at least some dollars)
a. Variable was logged prior to analysis due to substantial positive skewness.
For each of the sample cities, the sum of all incorporated cities plus
counties (1990) in its metropolitan statistical area (MSA) (or primary metropolitan statistical area if the city is in a consolidated metropolitan statistical area); for cities outside an MSA, the sum of all incorporated cities plus the county in the sample city’s county. An additive index of the z scores for three items: unemployment rate, percentage below the poverty level, and median household income, 1989. Ratio of city total general revenues to total general expenditures,
1990-1991. Ranges from 1 (no influence) to 7 (very strong influence); subjective
Elected officials’ support for economic development
Economic development plan
Form of government Central city Populationa Growth rateb Regionc
estimation based on the perceptions of economic development professionals. Ranges from 1 (not supportive at all) to 7 (very supportive); subjective measure based on the perceptions of economic development professionals. 1, if city had an official economic development plan/strategy in fiscal year 1994-1995; 0, if city had no official plan. 1, if strong mayor/council form; 0, if council/manager or other form. 1, if central city; 0, if other than central city. Total city population, 1990. Percentage change in population, 1980-1990. 1, if city in the region; 0, if not.
Variable was logged prior to analysis due to substantial positive skewness.
An inverse transformation of the variable occurred prior to analysis due to severe positive skewness.
Midwest (reference), Northeast, South, West.