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 The ubiquitous usage of unlicensed SW by organizations and private users should be given a special attention. By using such software users limit themselves to outdated protection against long-known viruses. The lack of a current virus base update and qualified technical support offered to official buyers has a negative effect upon infocommunication security.

   Considering the type of information being used, the volume of external infocommunication connections, and the degree of regulation, three main types of infocommunication systems subject in various degrees to the negative influence of malicious programs and spam should be identified: governmental systems, the systems of commercial and non-commercial organizations, and private systems.

1.1. Governmental infocommunication systems

   The activity of governmental organizations influences all the society and they are objectively more open than commercial ones. Within the framework of such governmental programs as, for example, "Electronic Russia", the implementation of electronic interaction of citizens with governmental structures is planned. This makes the infocommunications of governmental institutions especially vulnerable to malicious programs.

A disruption of governmental infocommunication systems by malicious programs can affect the situation in the whole country.

   Spam can also cause appreciable damage to the state as it results in the wasteful expenditures on traffic and time to connect to the Internet, as well as in losses of work time of state employees.

   Another important aspect is related to the lack of backup structures in public authorities. The customer has no opportunity to choose another organization if the information system of the governmental organization he needs is overloaded with spam or halts operation as a result of the influence of a malicious program.

   The state has objectively greater possibilities of regulating its activity. It creates favorable conditions for carrying out administrative and technical measures ensuring the protection of governmental infocommunication systems. At the same time, many governmental organizations do not have the necessary protection resources. The software products, which have no resistance to virus attacks, are used in such organizations on workstations and server units. The spam protection resources are also seldom used by governmental organizations.

   Taking into account the importance and scale of governmental infocommunication systems, the problem of their information security support is of primary importance.

1.2. Infocommunication system of commercial and non-commercial organizations

The information stored in infocommunication systems of commercial and non-commercial organizations has value only for these organizations themselves, their partners, and their clients. Therefore, the scales of damage from its loss or distortion will, on the whole, be less than the possible damage from the loss or distortion of governmental organization information.

   Nevertheless, large commercial and non-commercial organizations can be compared to governmental structures taking into account the scale of possible damage associated with the effect of malicious programs and spam. As a rule, the organizations elaborate and implement their own information security policies.

1.3. Personal infocommunication systems


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