. Muscle spasm and rigidity
Laboratory diagnosis: The bacteria can be cultured in a media with anaerobic atmosphere. Proof of isolation of C.tetani must rest on production of toxin and its neutralization by specific antitoxin Diagnosis is exclusively by clinical picture and history of injury
Administration of penicillin Proper wound debridement Provision of tetanus antitoxin (TAT) Prevention and control: Avoid traditional application of mud or ash over the umbilical stump Proper wound handling Immunization with tetanus toxoid NB: Since treatment of tetanus is not satisfactory, prevention is all important
Spores of C. botulinum are widely distributed in soil, they often contaminate vegetables, fruits and other materials.
Produce a neurotoxin which is the most active known poison, and considered to be the major agent of bioterrorism and biologic warfare