Culture: Transparent or grey, shiny, mucoid colonies in chocolate agar after incubation at 35-37Oc in a CO2 enriched atmosphere.
Biochemical reaction: Oxidase positive. Ferment glucose and maltose in carbohydrate utilization test. Serology: Latex agglutination test/ Hemmagglutination test
Treatment: Penicillin Penicillin-allergic patients are treated with generation cephalosporins or chloramphenicol Prevention and control . Chemoprophylaxis( Rifampin or minocycline) for house holds or close contacts . Avoidance of over crowding . Vaccination with polyvalent conjugate vaccine to high risk groups third-
NB: Meningococcal meningitis occurs in epidemics in Africa and named as Meningitis belt.
N. meningitidis serogroup A is the cause of African meningitis epidemic. During epidemics, the carrier state rises from 5-10% to 70-80%. Rifampicin is used as prophylactic drug to reduce the carrier state during epidemics and given to house hold and other close contacts.