Second-line drugs . Kanamicin . Cycloserine
. Capreomycin . Ethionamide
. Ofloxacin . Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS)
Preventionn and control:
. Prompt and effective treatment of patients with active tuberculosis and careful follow up of their contacts with tuberculin test and CXR
. Immunization with BCG (Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin) vaccine . Pasteurization of milk and milk products
Mycobacterium leprae Characteristics:
Typical acid-fast bacilli, arranged in singly, parallel bundles or in globular masses.
Not grown in non-living bacteriologic media.
Characteristic lesions are grown in laboratory animals. Eg. Foot pads of mice Armadillos Clinical features: Incubation period is months to years. Route of infection is through nasal mucus secretion. Disease: Hansen’s disease or leprosy.
The lesion involves the cooler parts of the body, Eg. Ear lobes. Clinical triads: Anaesthetic skin patches