Laboratory diagnosis: Specimen: Left over food, vomits, stool Culture the specimen for microbial isolation. Serological technique for toxin isolation. Treatment: Depends on the causative agent.
4.6. INFECTION OF URINARY TRACT Definition: The presence of significant numbers of micro-organisms any where in the urinary tract.
NB: Kidney and bladder are sterile at normal state. Host defense mechanisms . Micturition (Urine flow) . Surface bladder mucosa . Normal microbial flora . Secretary IgA . Menstrual flow only in females.
Aetiology: The commonest causative agents of UTI are gram-negative rods.
Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa Klebsiella pneumoniae Proteus spp. Enterobacter aerogens
Other important causative agents: Enterococci Staphylococcus saprophyticus