Routes of infection 1. Ascending route (passage of bacteria from urethra to bladder
and kidney.) Haematogenous route ( source of infection is blood)
NB: Ascending route is the commonest route infection of the urinary tract.
Contributing factors for urinary tract infection 1. Age: Very young and very old individuals are more at risk for
UTI. sex: UTI is more common in females females have short and wide urethra. 3. Instrumentation: Indwelling catheters and cystoscopic procedures 2. than males because
Neurogenic bladder dysfunction: Diabetes mellitus, Spinal injury
Obstruction: Congenital anomalies in youngs and prostatic
adenoma, stricture and calculi in olds. Underlying diseases: Diabetes mellitus, sickle cell disease Vesico-ureteral reflex: Associated with recurrent pyelonephritis.
Clinical features: 1. Lower urinary tract infection: Infection of urethra and bladder which manifests with frequency of micturition, pain during micturition, blood-stained or cloudy urine, supra pubic tenderness.