Usually no fever.
Upper urinary tract infection: Infection of the kidney parenchyma and pylus which manifests with the lower UTI symptoms and signs, flank pain, fever and chills, nausea and vomiting, and flank tenderness. Laboratory diagnosis Specimen: Clean catched midstream urine 2.
Catheterized urine Suprapubic aspiration Direct microscopic examination: WBCs, RBCs, Epithelial cells. The presence of more than five WBCs and abundant epithelial cells per HPF supports infection of urinary tract. Gram stain: The presence of one bacterium in Uncentrifuged gram stained urine confirms Urinary tract infection. Culture: Blood agar medium, Mac Conkey agar medium
Interpretation of culture results
1. 2. 3.
≥105cfu/ml of urine is significant to indicate UTI. <103cfu/ml of urine indicates contamination of specimen. 103-105cfu/ml of urine is uncertain.
NB: 103-105cfu/ml of urine in symptomatic patient or suprapubic or catheterized specimen indicates UTI.