Clinical features: Fever, bone pain, local tenderness and swelling, limitation of movement Laboratory diagnosis: Specimen: Blood culture, Pus from bone by needle aspiration Gram reaction, culture, biochemical tests and serology for microbe identification. Treatment: Antibiotics alone are usually effective if started early and continued for several weeks. Surgery is needed if there is pus accumulation and bone destruction.
Chronic osteomyelitis It manifests with bone pain, bone destruction with formation of sequestra and discharging sinuses. The most common causal organism is S. aureus; others include M. tuberculosis, S. typhi and Brucella species. Laboratory diagnosis: Same as acute osteomyelitis Treatment: . Antibiotics for several weeks. . Surgery is usually necessary for pus drainage and sequestra removal.
Septic arthritis It is usually seen as a complication of septicemia or an extension of osteomyelitis. Causative agents: S. aureus S. pneumoniae H. influenzae