3. Maximal stationary phase The period when the bacteria have achieved their maximal cell density or yield. There is no further increase in viable bacterial cell number. The growth rate is exactly equal to the death rate. A bacterial population may reach stationary growth when one of the following conditions occur:
The required nutrients are exhausted
Inhibitory end products are accumulated
Physical conditions do not permit a further increase in population size
The period at which the rate of death of bacterial cells exceeds the rate of new cell formation. There is drastic decline in viable cells. Few organisms may persist for so long time at this period at the expense of nutrients released from dying micro-organisms.