91.Deuteronomy 13:1 (see also Deuteronomy 4:2). This verse contains two prohibitions, commonly referred to as “bal tosif” and “bal tigra,” which are in most respects halakhic mirror images of each other. See Encyclopedia Talmudit III, “Bal Tigra”; ibid., “Bal Tosif.”
92.See text at note 6, supra.
93.See text at note 24, supra.
94.Sifrei, Re’ei, Chap. 13, sec. 82 (ed. Finkelstein, 148); R. David Samuel haLevi, Taz, O.H. sec. 651, no. 17; Mishna Berura, Be’ur Halakha, O.H. sec. 651, s.v. “Aval”; R. Judah Leib Graubart, Resp. Havalim baNe’imim II, sec. 7, no. 3. Cf. R. Aryeh Leib Gunzberg, Turei Even, Avnei Millu’im, Rosh haShana 28b.
95.The following authorities maintain that women cannot be culpable for bal tosif (and, hence, bal tigra—see note 91, supra) in mitsvot from which they are exempted: R. Isaiah di Trani (The Younger), Piskei Ri’az, Rosh haShana 4:2, no. 3; R. Joshua Boaz Baruch, Shiltei haGibborim, Rosh haShana 33a, no. 3; R. David Fraenkel, Korban haEida to Yerushalmi Eruvin 10:1 (26a), s.v. “Ma’an de-amar”; R. Ezekiel Kahila (reputed to be a pseudonym for R. Joseph Hayyim alHakam of Baghdad), Resp. Torah liShma, secs. 173 and 425; R. Joseph Babad, Minhat Hinukh, Commandment 454 (end); R. Solomon Avigdor Rabinowitz, Binyan Shelomo, sec. 14, no. 5; R. Meir Dan Plotski of Ostrova, Hemdat Yisrael, part 2, Kunteres Derekh haHayyim, sec. 5, no. 1; R. Jacob Segal Prager, She’eilat Ya’akov, sec. 18; R. Gedalia Felder, Yesodei Yeshurun I, sec. 93; R. Isaac Jacob Fuchs, Halikhot Bat Yisrael, Chapter 20, sec. 1, note 1. Several scholars maintain that bal tosif (and bal tigra) applies only to a mitsvah which is obligatory (hiyyuvit), but not to one which is optional (kiyyumit or reshut). See R. Prager, ibid.; R. Simcha Elberg, “Im Mutar leKayyeim Mitsvat Se’udot Shabbat beMatsa beShabbat shel Erev Pesah,” HaPardes 32:5 (Shevat 5718), p. 20; see also comments to the article by R. B. Z. Rosenthal, infra; and R. Uri Langer, “Im Shayyah Bal Tosif biSfirat haOmer,” HaMa’or 17:5 (Iyyar 5726), p. 3. This is, of course, the essence of a mitsvat asei she-ha-zeman gerama: obligatory for men, optional for women.
Others maintain that women can be culpable for bal tosif even in mitsvot from which they are exempted; see R. Isaac Tayeb, Erekh haShulhan, O.H. sec. 17, no. 2; R. Joseph Saul Nathanson and R. Mordechai Zev Eitinge, Magen Gibborim, O.H. sec. 17, no. 2, Elef haMagen, note 4; R. Hayyim Judah Leib Litvin Sosnitser, Sha’arei Dei’a, 12; Kaf haHayyim, O.H. sec. 17, no. 2, no. 8; R. Yisroel Taplin, Orah Yisrael, sec. 26, nos. 14