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On the other hand, other posekim do not approve of this practice. See: Resp. Torat Hesed, supra, note 113; R. Moshe Feinstein, cited by R. Aharon Felder, Mo’adei Yeshurun, I, Laws of Purim, sec. 1 no. 3 and note 9 ad loc., pp. 63-64, by R. Dovid Katz, ibid., sec. 14, no. 2, p. 133, and by R. Jacob Ephraim Farchheimer, Kol Torah, 54 (Nissan 5763) p, 24, no. 7;; Resp. Rivevot Ephrayyim, O.H. IV, sec. 43, p. 82; R. Menashe Klein, cited by R. Dovid Katz, ibid., and by R. Joel Schwartz, ibid.; R. Aharon Felder, LeTorah veHora’a, ibid; Rabbis Chaim Pinchas Scheinberg and Joseph Shalom Elyashiv as reported by R. Aryeh Zev Ginzberg in Resp. Divrei Hakhamim, O.H. sec. 8, no. 114. For a discussion of this prohibitive position and its rationale, see infra, note 139.

115.Mo’adim uZmanim, VIII, addendum to II, sec. 167.

116.R. Abraham David Horowitz, Resp. Kinyan Torah beHalakha, V, sec. 80, no. 4. See also Resp. Minhat Yitshak, supra, note 110, who also raises this possibility.

117.R. Moses Sofer, Derashot Hatam Sofer, III, Derush leBar Mitsvah, p. 72. Cf., however, Resp. Torat Hesed, O.H. sec. 37, and R. Joseph Cohen, Harerei Kodesh on R. Tsvi Pesah Frank’s Mikra’ei Kodesh, Purim, sec. 6, p. 86, who contend that even if women are obligated to read Parshat Zakhor, they cannot constitute a minyan for the reading. This debate is, in reality, predicated on the larger question of women and minyan. See at length Aryeh A. Frimer, supra, note 3. Rabbis Sofer and Horowitz clearly belong to the “First School,” while Rabbis Schneur Zalman and Cohen align themselves with the “Second School,” as defined in that article.

118.It should be noted that being exempted from a mitsvah is not always a valid reason for not performing it. For example, one is required to put tsitsit on the corners of one’s garments when one wears a four-cornered garment—but there is no obligation to wear such a garment! Nevertheless, R. Joseph Dov Soloveitchik, Beit haLevi, part 2, Derush 11, demonstrates that even in a case of a non-obligatory mitsvah such as tsitsit, if the general custom is to obligate oneself (e.g., by wearing a four-cornered garment) and one refrains from doing so, he is liable for heavenly punishment. (See also Tosafot, Pesahim 113b, s.v.Ve-ein lo banim.”) This is because his inaction, in light of the general custom, suggests that he despises mitsvot, and he is therefore considered a sinner. This, however, is not at all relevant to a woman’s choice to forego tefilla be-tsibbur in order to attend a women’s service. First, it is certainly not the universal custom of women to come to shul. Attendance is undoubtedly greater on Shabbat or Yom Tov mornings, but there are many communities in which most women simply stay home, as the Gaon of Vilna, supra, note

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