Regarding women davening ke-vatikin see: R. Menachem Nissel, Rigshei Lev, Chap. 3, parag. 5, note 5.
149.Resp. Radbaz, III, sec. 510 (472); R. Samuel de Medina, Resp. Maharshdam, O.H. sec. 36; R. Judah Greenwald, Resp. Zikhron Yehuda, O.H. sec. 67; R. Eliezer David Greenwald, Resp. Keren leDavid, O.H. sec. 41; R. Isaac Judah Jehiel of Komarno, Shulhan haTahor, O.H. sec. 150, no. 1; Hidushei Batra—Haga beMishna Berura, O.H. sec. 90, no. 28; Mishna Berura, O.H., sec. 150, subsec. 2; Ishei Yisrael, sec. 8, no. 10.
150.Arukh haShulhan, O.H. sec. 90, no. 15; Mishna Berura, sec. 90, no. 28; Hayyei Adam, kelal 17, no. 5.
151.Supra, note 149.
152.Supra, note 149.
153.Supra, note 149.
154.Peri Megadim, O.H. sec. 689, Eishel Avraham, no. 1; Mishna Berura, sec. 689, no. 1.
155.For a similar reason, i.e., lack of any obligation, there should also be no problem of “lo tit-godedu”; see Arukh haShulhan, O.H. sec. 651, no. 22.
156.Supra, note 76.
157.Resp. BeTsel haHokhma, V, sec. 30; Resp. Avnei Yashfe, III, sec. 50, no. 4. Cf., however, Resp. Devar Yehoshua, supra, note 105.
158.R. Abraham Hayyim Na’eh, Ketsot haShulhan, sec. 45, no. 2, Badei haShulhan no. 5.
159.Ketsot haShulhan, sec. 45, no. 9. Mishna Berura, sec. 199, no. 18, Sha’ar haTsiyyun, no. 9 cites this source and comments: “The [three women] will definitely not lose anything by breaking off [from the three men making the zimmun].”
160.See text near note 104.
161.Supra, note 104.
162.See also Resp. Heikhal Yitshak, O.H. sec. 63, no. 5—reprinted in Pesakim uKhtavim, II, She’eilot uTeshuvot beDinei Orah Hayyim, sec 106, no. 5.
163.For a discussion of the importance of minhag beit ha-kenesset, see R. Zvi Hirsch Chajes, Darkei Hora’a, secs. 6 and 7; R. Abraham Isaac haKohen Kook, Resp. Orah Mishpat, end of secs. 35 and 36; and Justice Menachem Elon, supra, note 4, p. 317ff. See also Judith Bleich, “Rabbinic Responses to Nonobservance in the Modern Era,” in Jewish Tradition and the Non-Traditional Jew, Jacob J. Schacter, ed. (Northvale, N.J.: Aronson Inc., 1992), pp. 37-115 at p. 66ff and text at notes 233-5, infra.
164.Supra, note 129. This observation is confirmed by the comments of R. Avraham Weiss, supra, note 57, p. 118.