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(2000); David Sperber, haNashim haMefallelot leAtsman, De’ot, 11, Elul 5761 (August 2001), pp. 30-33; David Sperber, haNashim haMefallelot leAtsman (Jerusalem: Orhot Press, 2002); David Sperber, “Tefilat Nashim,” in Daniel Sperber, Minhagei Yisrael, VII (Jerusalem, Mosad haRav Kook, 5763/2003), pp. 68-81; David Sperber, “Nashim haMitpalelot leAtsman – Ezrat Nashim beAshkenaz beRe’i haUmanut haYehudit,” in Lihiyot Isha Yehudiya, II, ed. Margalit Shiloh (Jerusalem, Kolech and Urim Publications, 2003), pp. 361-378; R. Daniel Sperber, Darka shel Halakha – Keri’a Nashim baTorah: Perakim biMediniyyut Pesikat (Jerusalem: Reuven Mas, 2007), pp. 199-202. These volumes cite the epitaphs of Urania of Worms (d. 6 Adar 5025 [1275 C.E.],) who “with sweet tunefulness officiated before the female worshipers to whom she sang hymnal portions”; Rechenza of Nurenberg (d. August 1, 1298), Guta bat Natan (d. 1308), and Dulce of Worms (d. 1238, wife of R. Elazar of Worms, author of the Ma’ase Rokei’ah).

180*.R. Joseph Messas, Nahalat Avot, V, part 2, pp. 268-269. The citation is from the Master’s degree thesis research of David Biton, Department of Jewish History, Hebrew University. We thank David Biton and Leah Shakdiel for bringing this source to our attention.

181.Resp. Mishne Halakhot, IV, sec. 78; R. Avraham Weiss, supra, note 57, p. 56, footnote 47.

182.See discussion in text at note 109, supra.

182*.As to Sephardic kehillot, see Resp. Shemesh uMagen, II, sec. 72, no. 3 and supra, note 90. Regarding Ashkenazic communities, see Mo’adim uZmanim, I, sec. 9. R. Shternbuch adds that in light of their high educational level, contemporary Jewish women should no longer be lenient with daily prayer—despite the lack of practice in the past.

182**. See Shakh to Y.D. 264, no. 2 cited above in note 172.

183.See notes 219 and 220, infra.

183*.This suggestion is confirmed by the comments of proponents and opponents alike. See: R. Avraham Weiss, supra, note 57, p. 56, footnote 48; R. J. David Bleich, supra, note 103; R. Gedalia Dov Schwartz, Tradition 26:3 (Spring 1992), pp. 97-99; and  R. Yitzchak A. Sladowsky, supra, note 69, where he writes: “Our primary objection concerns the reading from a sefer Torah.”

183**. It should be noted that R. Messas’ statement does not say that the women read from the Torah, only that they removed it from the Ark. Generally speaking, however, one may not remove the scroll from the Ark during services unless one does so for a purpose,

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