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with the clear design of imitating Christian religious services. Under such circumstances, adopting Reform practice would in essence constitute an adoption of Christian practice and thus violate u-be-hukoteihem.

No such parallel can be drawn with women’s tefilla groups. All-female prayer groups do not imitate either established Christian religious practice or Jewish heretical practice rooted in non-Jewish religious behavior. Interestingly, in discussing a women’s Torah reading accompanied by keriat haTorah benedictions, R. Ovadiah Yosef strengthens his prohibitive ruling by arguing that one must guard against the ways of the Reform movement. Nevertheless, he refrains from suggesting that such a practice is a violation of u-be-hukoteihem. See R. Ovadiah Yosef, Yom haShishi, 14 Shevat 5750 (Februaruy 9, 1990), p. 30; R. Isaac Yosef, Yalkut Yosef, II, sec. 143, Keriat haTorah baAsara, no. 4 and note 6; Kitsur Shulhan Arukh Yalkut Yosef, O.H. sec. 143, no. 5.

In closing, it should be emphasized that R. Weinberg concurs, as does R. Ovadiah Yosef, that those specific practices and innovations which would strengthen the convictions of Jewish heretics are clearly to be avoided, despite the fact that they do not technically violate u-be-hukoteihem. However, such considerations are within the realm of public policy, a subject which we will discuss more fully later in this paper.

189.Cf. M.T., Hilkhot Avoda Zara, 11:1. The terms “madao” and “deiotav,” however, are to be properly understood and translated as “theology” (or “articles of faith”) and “ethical behavior,” respectively, and not “ideas” and “opinions.” See the commentaries of both R. Joseph Kafah and R. Nachum L. Rabinovitch, Yad Peshuta, ad loc. See also Bernard Septimus, “What Did Maimonides Mean by Madda,” Meah Shearim (Jerusalem, The Hebrew University Magnes Press, 2001) p. 83-110. Of course, a particular idea or view may be prohibited on other grounds.

190.Leviticus 18:3.

191.Torat Kohanim, Aharei Mot, Parsheta 9:8. See also Chap. 13:9.

192.For a summary of the authorities and views on this issue, see Resp. Yabia Omer, III, Y.D. sec. 25, nos. 8-9; Encyclopedia Talmudit, supra, note 186, at 306-307.

193.Resp. Seridei Eish, III, sec. 93.

194.Resp. Yabia Omer, VI, O.H. sec. 29; Resp. Yehave Da’at, II, sec. 29; Yalkut Yosef, III, sec. 225, no. 20.

195.R. Aaron Walkin, Resp. Zekan Aharon, I, sec. 6.

196.Resp. Seridei Esh, supra, note 193, pp. 296-297.

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