“Women and Minyan,” Tradition 23:4 (Summer 1988), pp. 54-77; Aryeh A. Frimer, “Ma’amad haIsha beHalakha—Nashim uMinyan,” Or haMizrah 34:1, 2 (Tishrei 5746), pp. 69-86. Regarding women’s exemption from tefilla be-tsibbur, see as well infra, note 85. For examples where women do count for a minyan, see text, infra, at note 128. We note that the language in which the ritual is performed is irrelevant to the requirement of a minyan quorum; see: R. Moshe Ehrenreich and R. Yosef Carmel, Resp. beMar’e haBazak, VI, sec. 4, pp. 37.
3*.Regarding the growth of Torah-learning opportunities for women in the recent period, see: Shoshana Pantel Zolty, And All Your Children Shall Be Learned: Women and the Study of Torah in Jewish Law and History (Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson, Inc., 1993), pp. 301-309; Lauren B. Granite, “Tradition as a Modality of Religious Change: Talmud Study in the Lives of Orthodox Jewish Women,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Drew University, 1995; Tamar Elor, bePesah haBa: Nashim veOryanutbaTziyonut haDatit (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1998); Tamar Ross, “Bein Antropologia, Nashim uMasoret” B.D.D. 9 (Summer 1999), Hebrew Section, pp. 67-76. Several sociological studies of women’s tefilla groups have appeared. See: Sylvia Barack Fishman, A Breath of Life: Feminism in the American Jewish Community (New York: Free Press/Division of Macmillan, 1993), pp. 158-170; Sylvia Barack Fishman, Negotiating Both Sides of the Hyphen: Coalescence, Compartmentalization and American Jewish Values (Cincinnati, OH: Judaic Studies Program, University of Cincinnati, 1996), pp. 21-27; Sidney Langer, “Women’s Prayer Groups: A Case Study in Feminism and Modern Orthodoxy,” Ten Da’at, XI (Spring 1998), pp. 43-48; Yael Aldrich, “The Future of Women’s Tefillah Groups: a Younger Generation with New Issues,” Unpublished Seminar Paper, Brandeis University (Winter 1999); Aileen Cohen Nussbacher, “Efforts at Change in a Traditional Denomination: The Case of Orthodox Women’s Prayer Groups,” Nashim 2 (Spring 1999), pp. 95-113; Aileen Cohen Nussbacher, “Orthodox Jewish Women’s Prayer Groups: Seeking a More Meaningful Religious Experience,” Le’ela 49 (June 2000; Sivan 5760), pp. 41-45 (an abbreviated version of the above Nashim paper); Sylvia Barack Fishman, Changing Minds: Feminism in Contemporary Orthodox Jewish Life, (New York, NY: The American Jewish Committee, 2000); Sylvia Barack Fishman, “Comparitive Reflections on Modern Orthodoxy and Women’s Issues,” The Edah Journal, 1:2 (Sivan 5761/2001). Unfortunately, no comparable in-depth historical study of women’s prayer groups has yet appeared in print. Much of the material in this section is based on our own discussions