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  7.Our use of the terminology petura ve-osa (exempted, yet performs), rather than eina me-tsuva ve-osa (not commanded, yet performs), is based on Rabbeinu Tam’s own formulation; see note 10, infra. The phraseology, “eina me-tsuva ve-osa” with regard to women was presumably introduced by Rabbeinu Nissim of Gerondi (Ran); see infra, note 24. For an analysis of the nature of women’s exemption from time-bound commandments and the quality of their voluntary performance of such mitsvot, see note 23 infra and references cited therein.

  8.Regarding bal tosif, see Eruvin 96a and commentaries ad loc.

  9.Berakhot 33a; Maimonides, Mishne Torah (henceforth M.T.), Hilkhot Berakhot 1:15; ; Berakha sheEina Tserikha,” Encyclopedia Talmudit, IV, p. 280ff; R. Uri Bezalel Fischer, “Din Berakha leVatala – Berakha sheEina Tserikha,” beLekhtekha vaDerekh(Yeshivat Kerem beYavneh), 25 (Winter 5767), pp. 44-83.

 10.For leading references, see R. Jacob Tam, Sefer haYashar (Responsa), sec. 64, no. 5; Tosafot, Rosh haShana 33a, s.v.ha”; Rosh, Ran to Rif, and Rashba to Rosh haShana 33a; Tosafot, Eruvin 96a-b, s.v.dilma”; Tosafot, Kiddushin 31a, s.v.de-lo”; Ritva, Kiddushin 31a; R. Menahem Meiri, Beit haBehira (henceforth Meiri), Hagiga 16b (see note 39 for a complete citation list), Rosh haShana 33a and Hibbur haTeshuva p. 280.

 11.This is provided that the benediction is recited as an expression of heavenly praise. If the recitation is totally for naught, then a biblical prohibition may be violated; see R. Moses Sofer, Hiddushei Hatam Sofer, Ketubot 24. The view of Rabbeinu Tam, that prohibition against a berakha she-eina tserikha is actually rabbinic in origin, is maintained by the majority of Rishonim; see Resp. Yabia Omer, IX, O.H., sec. 23, no. 4. Cf. Maimonides, Teshuvot haRambam (ed. Blau), sec. 164, who explicitly states that the prohibition of berakha she-eina tserikha is biblical. See at length R. Ishmael ha-Kohen of Modona, Resp. Zera Emet, sec. 1; R. Jacob Joshua Falk, Pnei Yehoshua, Berakhot 33a, s.v. “Sham, Tni Rav Aha”; R. Judah Samuel Ashkenazi, Geza Yishai, I, Ma’arekhet Ot haBet, s.v. Berakha sheEinah Tserikha,” secs. 209-211; Resp. Yabia Omer, IX, O.H., sec. 11, sec 86, no. 12, and sec. 94. no. 7; R. Isaac Arieli, Einayyim laMishpat, Berakhot, 14a, s.v.de-hani”, and 33a, no. 50; R. Nachum L. Rabinovitch, Yad Peshuta, Hilkhot Berakhot, 1:15, Encyclopedia Talmudit, IV, “Berakaha sheEinah Tserikha.”

 12.Sifra, Parsheta 2; Hagiga 16b.

 13.R. Moses Sternbuch and R. Menahem Mendel Schwimmer similarly suggest “nahat ru’ah” as the possible rationale for permitting women to recite benedictions when

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