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Hayyim, Ben Ish Hai, Tetsave 13; R. Aaron Felder, Mo’adei Yeshurun, I, Laws of Purim, sec. 7, no. 9; R. Avraham David Horowitz, Resp. Kinyan Torah beHalakha, III, end of sec. 103. This is also the view of R. Moshe Feinstein, as quoted by R. Dovid Katz, “A Guide to Practical Halakha—Chanuka and Purim” (New York: Traditional Press, 1979), VIII, Laws of Purim, sec. 14, no. 15, p. 134, and former Chief Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu, as quoted by R. Moses Harari, Mikra’ei Kodesh—Hilkhot Purim, sec. 9, no. 7, note 30. Although Arukh haShulhan, ibid., states that the common minhag is to recite HaRav et riveinu even in the absence of a minyan, apparently the Ashkenazic minhag in Israel is not so; see Lu’ah Dinim uMinhagim, Israeli Chief Rabbinate (5757), p. 60; Lu’ah Erets Yisrael, R. Jehiel Michel Tucazinsky (5757), p. 44. R. Isaac Ratsabi, Shulhan Arukh ha-meKutsar, III, sec. 122, nos. 9 and 11, indicates that according to Yemenite usage, HaRav et riveinu can be said privately.

 45.R. David Ibn Abi Zimra, Resp. Radbaz, II, sec. 665. See Addendum, Parts 1c and 1d.

 46.R. Jacob Israel Algazi, Kuntres Hug haArets, sec. 3. See also Resp. Yabia Omer O.H., I, sec. 40 no. 5.

 47.See Resp. Mishne Halakhot, IV, sec. 78; R. Ovadiah Yosef, Me’or Yisrael, II, Megilla 23b.

 48.Megilla 4:3 (23b). See also Soferim 10:7 and the commentaries ad loc.

 48*.See R. Joseph Caro, Kesef Mishne, Hilkhot Tefilla 8:5, s.v. veKatav” (end); R. Joseph Te’omim, Rosh Yosef, Megilla 23b. See also infra, notes 138-140.

 49.While all authorities agree that the institutions of devarim she-bi-kdusha are rabbinic in origin, some maintain that their recitation in the presence of a bona fide minyan is a biblical obligation. See Einayyim laMishpat, Berakhot 21b, no. 3; Aryeh A. Frimer, Or haMizrah, supra, note 3, footnote 14 and sources cited therein. See also: R. Solomon Gansfried, Penei Shelomo, Eruvin 100a; Resp. Igrot Moshe, O.H. II, sec. 98.

 50.R. Moses ben Nahman, Milhamot Hashem, on Rif to Megilla, chap. 1, sec. 1067, 5a [page 3a in Vilna edition of Rif], s.v.veOd amar Rav.” For a discussion of the reason in each case, see R. Israel Lipschutz, Tiferet Yisrael, Megilla 4:3, no. 24; R. Pinhas Kehati, Megilla 4:3.

 51.See Encyclopedia Talmudit, VI, “Davar she-bi-kdusha,” and Aryeh A. Frimer, Or haMizrah, note 3, supra, footnote 2 therein, for a discussion of those rituals included in this category and its ramifications.

 52.See: R. Malachi haKohen, Yad Malakhi, Kelalei haAlef, sec. 41 (and sources cited

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