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6, par. 7 and addendum; VII, O.H., sec. 20, par. 3; R. Ovadiah Yosef, Me’or Yisrael, I, Megilla 23b; R. Ovadiah Yosef, Halikhot Olam, II, Shoftim, sec. 6, note 6, pp. 206-207; R. Aaron Boaron, Birkat Aharon, I, p. 136; Tehilla le-Yona, Megilla (Lakewood, N.J.: Makhon Be’er haTorah, 5759), Megilla 23b, s.v.Ein” “haTa’am” and “be-Eize”, pp. 234-236. See also Otsar haPosekim, E.H., sec. 62, no. 4, no. 18, subsection 3. See as well R. Aaron Milavsky, Helkat Aharon, sec. 2, regarding the view of R. Tam cited by R. Isaac of Vienna, Or Zaru’a, Hilkhot Nesi’at Kapayyim, sec. 411, that Birkat Kohanim can be recited with fewer than a minyan. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that Noda biYhuda’s leniency is based on the ruling of the Jerusalem Talmud, Megilla 4:4 (75a), that if a ritual requiring a minyan begins with the minimum quorum, it may continue even though some have left. The codes which cite this ruling (e.g., Mishna Berura, O.H. sec. 55, no. 11 and sec. 143, no. 5; Arukh haShulhan, O.H. sec. 55, no. 6) make it clear, though, that at least six must remain for the service to continue. Hence, even according to Noda biYhuda, a majority of a minyan must be present. Furthermore, Rav Pe’alim, O.H., I, sec. 5, maintains that it is forbidden to begin if it is known in advance that fewer than a minyan will remain for the entire service. (R. Shlomo Zalman Auerbach disagrees, however, with this latter ruling; see: R. Nahum Stepansky, veAleihu Lo Yibol, I, O.H., sec. 27.) Finally, no one entertains the possibility that one could ab initio (le-kha-tehila) recite the nuptial blessings in the absence of a minyan as a patur ve-ose; see the sources cited at the beginning of this paragraph, as well as Resp. Tsafnat Panei’ah (ed. R. Menachem Mendel Kasher, New York) sec. 83; saveinu moreinu z"l, R. Moses Zev Kahn, Resp. Tiferet Moshe, Part 1, sec. 46; Resp. Mishpetei Uziel, H.M., sec. 62, R. Aryeh Leib Grosness, Resp. Lev Arye, I, sec. 35; Resp. Minhat Yitshak, II, sec. 42; and R. Yehuda Gershuni, Hokhmat Gershon, p. 165, at p. 167. The recitation of  mourner’s funeral kaddish at a funeral in the absence of a minyan is also emphatically ruled out by R. Ezra Batsri, Resp. Sha’arei Ezra, O.H., sec 6. Interestingly, in a letter to Joel B. Wolowelsky, penned in early May 1998, R. David Silver reports that his father, R. Eliezer Silver, recounted to him the following: “It once happened when the burial took place, it was noted that not a full minyan was present. The daughters broke out in tears. My father za"l noted that there were more than a minyan of women there. He separated the women from the men and allowed the daughters to say Kaddish for their father.” The rationale for this one-time leniency was unfortunately never elucidated (personal communication to AAF, May 1998).

 53.Berakhot 21b.

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