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R. Chaim Pinchas Scheinberg and R. Joseph Shalom Elyashiv, cited by R. Menachem Nissel, Rigshei Lev, Chap. 7, parag. 16, note 27, maintain that it is nevertheless preferable for women to hear the Torah reading. R. Moshe Shterbuch and R. Moshe Halbershtam, cited in Rigshei Lev, Chap. 7, parag. 18, note 29 dissent.

 88.Supra, note 76.

 89.R. Dov Ber Karasik, Pit’hei Olam uMatamei haShulhan, O.H. sec. 146, no. 1, end of note 1; R. Jacob Hayyim Sofer, Kaf haHayyim, O.H. sec. 146, no. 1, note 2; R. Bezalel Stern, Resp. beTsel haHokhma, IV, sec. 19; R. Moses Stern, Resp. Be’er Moshe, VIII, sec. 85; and R. Shalom Isaac Mizrahi, Resp. Divrei Shalom, O.H., I, sec.109. Rabbis Sofer and Mizrahi indicate, however, that to their mind this leniency should not be used unless necessary. R. Moses Mordechai Karp, Hilkhot Hag beHag: Purim (Jerusalem: Oraysa, 5791) addendum to 7:3 note 7, p. 213, suggests that Magen Avraham also agrees that women are not inherently obligated in keriat haTorah. However, once keriat haTorah begins, an obligation devolves upon them along with the men, since they are part of the tsibbur (community) present in shul. This would then be analogous to the laws of zimmun, which is optional for women, but in the presence of three men becomes obligatory for the women as well (Shulhan Arukh, O.H. sec. 199, no. 7). According to R. Karp’s novel approach, the “exodus” of the women, mentioned by Magen Avraham, occurred before the reading of the Torah commenced. A similar interpretation is suggested by R. Yehuda Herzl Henkin in “Mahu Kevod haTsibbur,” HaDarom 55 (Elul 5746), p. 33 (see p. 39) and Resp. Benei Vanim, II, no. 10 (see p. 42). This also seems to be the position of R. Chaim Kanievsky, cited by R. Yisroel Taplin, Ta’arikh Yisrael, sec. 17, no. 3, note 5*. R. Joseph Shalom Elyashiv, Kovets Teshuvot, III, sec. 48, and cited in R. Menachem Nissel, Rigshei Lev, Chap. 7, note 27, maintains that the exodus of women was condoned only because they didn’t understand what was being read in any case; the situation is different today.

 90.Alim liTrufa, Aram Tsova edition, supra note 85*. Jerusalem’s Sephardic Chief Rabbi Shalom Messas, supra, note 20, records that most Moroccan Jewish women never attended synagogue even on Yom Kippur. As a result, few synagogues even had women’s sections. Those women who did come to the synagogue rarely participated in the prayer service. R. Messas attributes this primarily to the women’s illiteracy and lack of education.

 90*. This is explicitly stated by R. Judah Samuel Ashkenazi, Geza Yishai, I, Ma’arekhet Ot Alef, end of sec. 27, s.v. Ein Ma’avirin al Hamitsvot.

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