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In-text Citations

In the text of your assignment, provide support for your argument by citing by author and year the sources you have used in your research. Citing acknowledges that these ideas are someone else’s. It also allows your readers to locate further details of the source in the reference list at the end of your paper.

Within a paragraph, omit the the year from later citations to the same source, provided it cannot be confused with another reference In a study of harvesting techniques (Collette, 1990)… Collette also notes

One work by two authors

Cite both authors every time the reference occurs in your assignment Growth of young apple trees is strongly determined by the type of cultivar (Hirst & Ferree, 1995) … Hirst and Ferree also noted the importance of disease-free rootstock

Multiple authors: & and and

Use & in front of the last name for citations in parentheses, and and in front of the last name for citations that are part of the sentence

One work by three, four or five authors

Cite all authors the first time; in later citations, include only the family name of the first author followed by et al. – include the year in later citations if it is the first time you cite the source in that paragraph

Kaufman, Perlman, R. and Speciner (1995) found [First citation in the assignment]

Kaufman et al. (1995) found … This security technique is not always effective (Kaufman et al.). [Later citations with “et al.”, first occurrence in a paragraph includes year]

One work by one author

Include the author and year in parentheses after the relevant text in your assignment

In a study of harvesting techniques at sea (Collette, 1990) If the author’s name appears as part of your sentence, cite only the year in parentheses

Collette (1990) compared harvesting techniques at sea

Exception: if shortening the citation would lead to ambiguity, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many additional authors as necessary to distinguish each citation

Gumble, Burns, and Flanders (2001) and Gumble, Flanders, et al. (2001)

One work by six or more authors

Cite the first author only followed by et al. and the year for all citations in your assignment. Avoid ambiguous citations as noted above for “One work by three, four or five authors”

NB. In the reference list, provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors, and shorten any additional authors to et al.

Organisation as author

Usually spell out the organisation name in full

(Lincoln University, 2007) Associations and government agencies can be abbreviated if their name is long and the abbreviation is well known

(New Zealand Qualifications Authority [NZQA], 2008) [First citation in the assignment]

(NZQA, 2008) [Later citations in the assignment]

Works with no author

Use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and year For an article or book chapter, use “”

on free care (“Study finds,” 2008) For a book or report, italicise the shortened title:

according to this definition of the word (Longman dictionary, 2003)


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