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Anonymous works

Only use “Anonymous” if this is how the author is designated in the work (Anonymous, 1999)

Authors with the same family name

To avoid confusion, include primary authors’ initials in all in-text citations if they have the same family name was observed in other studies (B. J. Simpson, 2005; L. M. Simpson, 2007) or B. J. Simpson (2005) and L. M. Simpson (2007) also found

Note: A primary author is the author that appears first in an entry in the reference list.

More than one work cited at once, different authors

List citations in the same order as they appear in the reference list, separating with a semicolon (;) as found in recent studies (Hirst & Ferree, 1995; Tucker, 1994).

Exception: You may emphasise a major citation by giving the major citation first, and then listing the remaining citations (in alphabetical order) after a phrase such as see also

(Burns, 2005; see also Flanders, 2001; Gumble, 2000)

More than one work cited at once, same author

Give the author’s family name once, followed by the year of publication of each work, separated with a comma (,) Past research (Gumble, 2001, 2005)

More than one work cited at once, same author(s), same year

Cite as in the previous example, distinguishing the years by suffixes a, b, c, etc. Suffixes should be assigned in the reference list, in order by title Several studies (Flanders, 1999a, 1999b; Gumble, 2005a, 2005b)

No year of publication

If a work has no date of publication, use n.d. (meaning “no date”) instead of a year (Frink, n.d.)

If a work has been accepted for publication, but has not yet been printed, use in press

(Frink, in press) In lists of works by the same author, in press works appear last

(Frink, 2003, in press)

NB. n.d. and in press are used in the matching reference-list entries

Specific parts of a source (pages, chapters, etc.)

For a larger work, such as a book, it is desirable to indicate the page, chapter, etc. Always give page numbers for quotations (Kaufman, Perlman, & Speciner, 1995, p. 125) (Kaufman et al., 1995, pp. 212-225) (Sadler, 2003, chap. 5)

NB. use p. for a single page, pp. for multiple pages; chap. for a chapter

For electronic sources without page numbers, use paragraph number (if available) preceded by or para. If no paragraph or page numbering is available, cite the heading and number of the paragraph following it

(Hibbert, 2007, ¶ 5)

(Smithers, 2006, Summary section, ¶ 1)

Statutes (pinpoint citations)

For statutes, use pinpoint citations to the specific part of the act. Abbreviate Section to ‘s’ and Sections to ‘ss’ unless it appears at the start of the sentence. Numbered or lettered subsections should be placed in parentheses following the section number. Do not italicise the title of the statute

by virtue of s 220(2)(b) of the Resource Management Act 1991.


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