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Personal communications, such as email, personal interviews

Give in-text citations only for personal communications. Give initials and family name of the communicator, and as exact a date as possible (T. Lovejoy, personal communication, June 17, 2008)

Personal communications are not included in a reference list as they do not provide recoverable information.

Citing an entire Web site

It is sufficient to give the address of the Web site in the text of your assignment, without including an entry in the reference list

as specified by s 138(2)(a), 4(b) of the Resource Management Act 1991.

Section 221 of the Resource Management Act 1991 specifies

the Resource Management Act 1991 ss 14, 21A.

Further guidance with pinpoint citations is provided at section 3.1.4 of: Australian guide to legal citation (2nd ed.). (2002). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Melbourne University Law Review Association. K89 Aus 2002

The SPARC Web site (www.sparc.org.nz) provides excellent information about sport in New Zealand.

NB. Use in-text citations and entries in the reference list when citing specific pages or documents from a Web site Kedgley (2004) notes that

Peele, S. (1994). The surprising truth about addiction. Psychology Today, 37(3), 43-45. [entry in the reference list – no entry for Brockman]

(Brockman, 1990, as cited in Peele, 1994, p. 45) [in-text citation]

Citing a source found in another source

If practical, find the original source and reference and cite it directly. Otherwise, refer to both sources in the text of your assignment, but in the reference list include only the source you actually used For example, you are reading a work by Peele who quotes from Brockman, and you want to paraphrase Brockman’s words.


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