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Lecture notes

spoken lecture

handouts

coursebook

myLincoln

citation_APA_Dec08.doc

If you are referring to notes you have made from the lecturer’s spoken presentation, cite as a “personal communication” (no entry in the reference list)

(J. Bowring, personal communication, October 3, 2009)

For all the examples below: If you are referring to textual material your lecturer has made available to you that has been formally published (e.g. a journal article), follow the guidelines for that format instead. In that situation there is no need to indicate in your assignment that your lecturer made the material available to you

If you are referring to material handed out by your lecturer (and the notes haven’t been formally published as a journal article, etc.), reference as an “unpublished paper presented at a meeting”

(Bowring, 2009) [in-text citation]

Bowring, J. (2009). Otahuna images in pictures. Paper presented at lecture for LASC 316, Innovative Design (A), Lincoln University. [entry in the reference list]

If you are referring to material written by the lecturer in a coursebook, reference as a “publication of limited circulation”. Include the page number in the in-text citation if the coursebook has full pagination, otherwise the

section heading (Ross, 2009, pp. 23-45)

or

(Ross, 2009, Recreation Sector

[in-text citation, book paginated]

Topic 2 section, pp. 7-8) [in-text citation, section heading]

Ross, J. (2009). RECN 110 Concepts in Sport and Recreation reading

resource book. (Available from Lincoln University to enrolled students) [entry in the reference list]

If you are referring to material posted on the course Web site (myLincoln) by your lecturer (and the notes haven’t been formally published as a journal article, etc.), reference as a “publication of limited circulation”

(Bowring, 2009) [in-text citation]

Bowring, J. (2009). Lecture 4: Otahuna images in pictures [PowerPoint

slides]. (Available from Lincoln University myLincoln LASC 316 Web site) [entry in the reference list]

NB. Often it is helpful to include a description of the work. For example: [Audio file], [Computer program], [Excel spreadsheet], [Multimedia presentation], [PowerPoint slides], [Software], [Video file]. Wordprocessed documents (for example, Microsoft Word files) do not require a description

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