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addition, for children under four, information is collected on vaccination and other health inputs. I will also make some use of the earlier wave of the NFHS, which was run on a similar sample size in 1992-1993.

The primary child investment analyzed is vaccination. There are eight possible vaccinations: three DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus) vaccines, three polio vaccines, a measles vaccine, and a BCG (tuberculosis) vaccine. The measure of vaccination is simply the total number of vaccinations reported by the child’s mother or on their health card. I will also present results in which the measure of vaccination is whether the child has any vaccinations.

The analysis will also use information on the number of “Family Health and Welfare Camps” held in each village in the previous year, as well as information on distance to other sources of vaccination. The information on camps is drawn from the NFHS village survey (administered to the village head). The information on distance is household-specific and comes from the NFHS household survey.

Summary statistics are shown in Table 1. Panel A describes the basic demographics of children included in the sample. Slightly less than half are girls, with an average age of 1.2 years. The mothers in the sample have approximately 3.5 years of education, and are largely Hindu (75%). The children have, on average, 0.70 older brothers and 0.80 older sisters. The slightly larger number of older sisters is suggestive of a gender-biased stopping rule in which families are more likely to continue child-bearing when they have a female child early. Panel B of Table 1 shows summary statistics on vaccination access and levels. The average child in the sample has slightly more than half of their vaccinations – 4.7 out of 8, and 75% have at least one vaccination. The average number of camps in a village each year is 1.2, although the range is from 0 to 70. It is worth noting that girls have significantly fewer vaccines than boys (4.54 versus 4.79 on average) suggesting at least some gender discrimination in vaccination in the sample.


Health Camps and Gender Di erences in Vaccination

This section describes the primary test of the theory in this paper, which relies on variation in the availability of vaccination camps across villages. In the first subsection I discuss the placement of vaccination camps. The second subsection presents results.


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