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Table 7. Access to Health Facility and Gender Imbalance in Vaccination Dependent Variable: Number of Vaccinations Child Has

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

All

Not in Village

Ideal: Equal/Girls

Ideal: Boys

Explanatory Variables: Girl × Dist.

Girl × Dist. Sq.

Distance

Dist. Sq.

Child Age

Child Age Sq.

  • #

    Older Brothers

    • #

      Older Sisters

State Fixed Effects Village Pop-Gender Inter. Number of Obs. R2

.0138 (.011) .0005(0) .0222∗∗ (.01) .0001 (0) 1.9152∗∗∗ (.141) .4344∗∗∗ (.041) .1038∗∗ (.044) .031 (.041) YES YES 16,948 .33

.0283∗∗ (.013) .0008∗∗ (0) .0221(.013) .0001 (0) 1.8714∗∗∗ (.16) .4163∗∗∗ (.047) .1185∗∗ (.049) .0124 (.046) YES YES 13,412 .32

(0)

(0)

1.9534∗∗∗

1.8999∗∗∗

(.176)

(.23)

.4511∗∗∗

.4212∗∗∗

(.014)

(.018)

.0001

.0013∗∗∗

(0)

(0)

.098

.0385

(.059)

(.058)

YES

YES

YES

YES

9873

7075

.34

.27

.0036

.0445∗∗

.0268∗∗

.0132

(.052) .0084 (.064)

(.067) .163∗∗∗ (.059)

(.012) .0001

(.013)

.0004

Notes: This table estimates the effect of distance to a primary health center, a community health center, or a government hospital on the gender imbalance in vaccination. An observation is a child aged six months to four years and the dependent variable is the number of vaccinations the child has received (0-8). Distance is the minimum distance reported in the village survey to either a Primary Health Center, a Community Health Center, or a Government Hospital. Column 1 includes all observations and Column 2 limits to those without one of these health facilities in the village. Column 3 includes all villages, but only people who report wanting equal numbers of boys and girl or more girls; Column 4 includes all villages but only those who report wanting more boys. Other controls: maternal age, maternal education, family income, a dummy for being Hindu, and birth order. Full regressions with all controls reported are in Appendix Table W.1.4 (on author’s website). standard errors in parentheses, clustered at the village level

significant at 10%; ∗∗ significant at 5%; ∗∗∗ significant at 1%

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