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Table 9. Changes in Gender Bias in Mortality, 1982-1992 Dependent Variable: Child Died 18 months - 5 years

(2)

(3)

Increase

No Increase

in Vaccinations

in Vaccinations

(1) All

86.81∗∗ (41.97) .0505∗∗ (.023) .0128∗∗ (.005) .0436∗∗ (.021) 100.32∗∗ (44.70) 25.36∗∗ (10.78) .0424∗∗∗ (.015) .0075∗∗ (.003) 84.29∗∗∗ (29.44) 14.81∗∗ (6.73) .0391∗∗∗ (.015)

78.21(43.92) .0486∗∗ (.023) .0121∗∗ (.006) .0393(.022) 96.50∗∗ (46.28) 24.08∗∗ (10.97) .0395∗∗ (.016) .0065(.003) 78.47∗∗ (30.84) 12.91(6.95) .0451∗∗∗ (.016)

7.93 (30.02) .0000 (.000) .0028 (.004) .0042 (.015)

5.59 (8.34) .0189 (.119) .0038 (.031) 36.36 (236.20) 7.28 (62.50) .0018 (.101)

129,138

99,146

29,992

Explanatory Variables: Girl

Girl × Birth Yr. × Vacc92

Girl × Birth Yr. × Vacc92 Sq.

Girl × Birth Yr

Girl × Vacc92

Girl × Vacc92 Sq.

Birth Year × Vacc92

Birth Year × Vacc92 Sq.

Vacc92

Vacc92 Sq.

Birth Yr.

Number of Observations

Notes: This table estimates the evolution of gender inequality in mortality over the period from 1982 to 1993, using a created panel based on children of different ages. The coef- ficient are from a probit model. The dependent variable is an indicator for whether the child died between 18 months and five years, conditional on having reached 18 months. The regression is limited to children born five to ten years before the survey. Column 1 includes all states; Column 2 includes only those with an increase in vaccination rates between surveys and Column 3 includes only those without an increase in vaccination rates between surveys. In Column 3, the interaction between girl and total number of vaccines is dropped due to collinearity in the smaller sample. Other controls: maternal age, maternal education, family income, child age (quadratic), birth order, Hindu and number of older brothers and number of older sisters. Full regressions with all controls

reported are in Appendix Table W.1.5(on author’s website).

standard errors in parentheses significant at 10%; ∗∗ significant at 5%;

∗∗∗

significant at 1%

37

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