rights in the mid-1900’s, suggested, “Slavery was not abolished because it was bad and unjust. It
was abolished because men fought, bled, and died.” (Randolph 39). Philip was right; despite
the abolishment of a hundred-year long shackle on the freedom of African Americans, the
memories of slaves and chain gangs would last even longer. Abel Plenn spoke similarly to
Philip’s theory in his 1957 publication, “Report of Montgomery a Year After” while addressing
the abolishment of slavery and the establishment of segregation. Plenn challenges the policy of
segregation, stating, “The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments promised…’separate but equal’
systems…the resulting systems were separate, but not close to equal in any respect (Plenn) 358).
The black society of America was sent the strongest vibes of inequality through segregation.
Schools, restaurants, and even public bathrooms bore the dreaded, “Whites Only” signs. This
feeling of being “not good enough” reflected in the hearts and minds of the men and women
who, like their once-enslaved ancestors, would wait for years until they could finally be a part of
the American community. This disregard towards African Americans was so clear that Phiip A.
Randolph, in his “Keynote Address to the March on Washington Movement”, explained that
“[an all-Negro movement] helps to break down the…inferiority complex in Negroes” (Randolph
370). Randolph expressed the need to find acceptance in the w3orld that African American flet.
Randolph’s words expressed the motive behind the rising civil rights movement that African
Americans would not abandon until they had succeeded.
Using his authority as America’s leader in the early 1960’s, President Kennedy
confronted the entire nation not only on the emotional distress that African American faced, but
also for the seemingly eternal violence that infected the entire nation during the mid-1900’s: