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Guerrero 3

rights in the mid-1900’s, suggested, “Slavery was not abolished because it was bad and unjust. It

was abolished because men fought, bled, and died.” (Randolph 39). Philip was right; despite

the abolishment of a hundred-year long shackle on the freedom of African Americans, the

memories of slaves and chain gangs would last even longer. Abel Plenn spoke similarly to

Philip’s theory in his 1957 publication, “Report of Montgomery a Year After” while addressing

the abolishment of slavery and the establishment of segregation. Plenn challenges the policy of

segregation, stating, “The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments promised…’separate but equal’

systems…the resulting systems were separate, but not close to equal in any respect (Plenn) 358).

The black society of America was sent the strongest vibes of inequality through segregation.

Schools, restaurants, and even public bathrooms bore the dreaded, “Whites Only” signs. This

feeling of being “not good enough” reflected in the hearts and minds of the men and women

who, like their once-enslaved ancestors, would wait for years until they could finally be a part of

the American community. This disregard towards African Americans was so clear that Phiip A.

Randolph, in his “Keynote Address to the March on Washington Movement”, explained that

“[an all-Negro movement] helps to break down the…inferiority complex in Negroes” (Randolph

370). Randolph expressed the need to find acceptance in the w3orld that African American flet.

Randolph’s words expressed the motive behind the rising civil rights movement that African

Americans would not abandon until they had succeeded.

Using his authority as America’s leader in the early 1960’s, President Kennedy

confronted the entire nation not only on the emotional distress that African American faced, but

also for the seemingly eternal violence that infected the entire nation during the mid-1900’s:

“Those who do nothing are inviting shame as well as violence” (“President John F. Kennedy

Addresses the Nation”). Several years before Kennedy’s address, President Eisenhower spoke in

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