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Range-Based and Range-Free Localization Schemes for Sensor Networks - page 3 / 37

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Range-based localization schemes

TOA (Time of Arrival)

Get range info via signal propagation delay

E.g., GPS

Expensive, power consuming, inaccurate

TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival)

Transmit both radio and ultrasonic signals at the same time to observe the arrival time difference

Extra hardware, i.e., ultrasonic channel, is required

Not only radio but also sound signals have multipath effects affected by humidity, temperature, …

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